El VIH y las personas transgénero

Los datos del 2020 deben interpretarse con cautela debido al impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en el acceso a las pruebas de detección del VIH, los servicios relacionados con la atención y las actividades de vigilancia de casos en las jurisdicciones estatales y locales. Si bien los datos del 2020 sobre diagnósticos de VIH y resultados de prevención y atención están disponibles, no estamos actualizando este contenido web con datos de estos informes.

Cerca de un millón de personas se identifican como transgénero en los Estados Unidos (EE. UU.); y los adultos y adolescentes transgénero conformaron el 2 % (601) de los diagnósticos nuevos de infección por el VIH en los EE. UU. y áreas dependientes en el 2018. Obtenga la información más reciente sobre el VIH entre las personas transgénero y averigüe cómo los CDC están marcando la diferencia.

Descargue la hoja informativa
  1. CDC. HIV infection, risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among transgender women–National HIV Behavioral Surveillance–7 U.S. Cities, 2019-2020 [PDF - 2 MB]. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2021.
  2. CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2018 (updated)HIV Surveillance Report 2020;31.
  3. CDC. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons with diagnosed HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2018 cycle (June 2018–May 2019) [PDF - 905 KB]. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;25.
  4. CDC. Selected national HIV prevention and care outcomes [PDF - 2 MB] (slides).
  5. Becasen JS, Denard CL, Mullins MM, Higa DH, Sipe TA. Estimating the prevalence of HIV and sexual behaviors among the US transgender population: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 2006–2017. Am J Public Health 2018. e1-e8. PubMed abstract.
  6. Baral SD, Poteat T, Strömdahl S, Wirtz AL, Guadamuz TE, Beyrer C. Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2013;13(3):214-22. PubMed abstract.
  7. Brennan J, Kuhns LM, Johnson AK, Belzer M, Wilson EC, Garofalo R, et al. Syndemic theory and HIV-related risk among young transgender women: the role of multiple, co-occurring health problems and social marginalization. Am J Public Health 2012;102(9):1751-7. PubMed abstract.
  8. Herman JL, Flores AR, Brown TNT, Wilson BDM, Conron KJ (2017). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute.
  9. CDC. CDC-funded HIV testing: United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2015 [PDF - 2 MB]. July 2017.
  10. Chen S, McFarland W, Thompson HM, Raymond HF. Transmen in San Francisco: what do we know from HIV test site data?AIDS Behav 2011;15:659-62. PubMed abstract.
  11. Clark H, Babu AS, Wiewel EW, Opoku J, Crepaz N. Diagnosed HIV infection in transgender adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014. PubMed abstract.
  12. De Santis JP. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2009;20(5):362-72. PubMed abstract.
  13. Flores AR, Herman JL, Gates GJ, Brown TNT. How many adults identify as transgender in the United States? Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute. June 2016.
  14. Garofalo R, Johnson AK, Kuhns LM, Cotton C, Joseph H, Margolis A. Life Skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women. J Urban Health 2012;89(3):419-31. PubMed abstract.
  15. Herbst JH, Jacobs ED, Finlayson TJ, McKleroy VS, Neumann MS, Crepaz N. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: a systematic review. AIDS Behav 2008;12(1):1-17. PubMed abstract.
  16. Hotton AL, Garofalo R, Kuhns LM, Johnson AK. Substance use as a mediator of the relationship between life stress and sexual risk among young transgender women. AIDS Educ Prev 2013;25(1):62-71. PubMed abstract.
  17. James SE, Herman JL, Rankin S, Keisling M, Mottet L, Anafi M. The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality; 2016.
  18. Meerwijk EL, Sevelius JM. Transgender population size in the United States: a meta-regression of population-based probability samples. Am J Public Health 2017; 107(2):e1-e8. PubMed abstract.
  19. Mizuno Y, Frazier EL, Huang P, Skarbinski J. Characteristics of transgender women living with HIV receiving medical care in the United States LGBT Health 2015;2(00):1-7. PubMed abstract.
  20. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Surveillance slide sets: HIV among people identified as transgender in New York City, 2015-2019. December 2020. Accessed March 22, 2021.
  21. Nuttbrock L, Hwahng S, Bockting W, Rosenblum, A, Mason, M, Macri M, et al. Lifetime risk factors for HIV/sexually transmitted infections among male-to-female transgender persons. J Acquir Immun Def Syndr 2009;52(3):417–21. PubMed abstract.
  22. Reisner SL, Perkovich B, Mimiaga MJ. A mixed methods study of the sexual health needs of New England transmen who have sex with nontransgender men. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2010;24(8):501-13. PubMed abstract.
  23. Rowniak S, Chesla C, Rose CD, Holzemer WL. Transmen: the HIV risk of gay identity. AIDS Educ Prev 2011;23(6):508-20. PubMed abstract.
  24. Sanchez T, Finlayson T, Murrill C, Guilin V, Dean L. Risk behaviors and psychosocial stressors in the New York City House Ball community: a comparison of men and transgender women who have sex with men. AIDS Behav 2010;14:351-8. PubMed abstract.
  25. CDC. HIV testing among transgender women and men — 27 states and Guam, 2014–2015. MMWR 2017;66:883–887.
  26. Lemons A, Beer L, Finlayson T, Hubbard McCree D, Lentine D, Shouse RL. Characteristics of HIV-positive transgender men receiving medical care: United States, 2009–2014. Am J Public Health 2018;108(1):128-30. PubMed abstract.
  27. Reisner SL, Jadwin-Cakmak L, White Hughto JM, Martinez M, Salomon L, Harper GW. Characterizing the HIV prevention and care continua in a sample of transgender youth in the U.S.  AIDS Behav. 2017; 21(12):3312-3327. PubMed abstract.
  28. Poteat T, Malik M, Scheim A, Elliott A. HIV prevention among transgender populations: knowledge gaps and evidence for action. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2017;14(4):141-152. PubMed abstract.
  29. Mizuno Y, Frazier EL, Huang P, Skarbinski J. Characteristics of transgender women living with HIV receiving medical care in the United States.  LGBT Health. 2015;2(3):228-34. PubMed abstract.
  30. National Center for Transgender Equality; Annual report 2016. The T’s Not Silent.