HIV and American Indian/Alaska Native People: Viral Suppression

Ending the HIV Epidemic Overall Goal: Increase the percentage of people with diagnosed HIV who are virally suppressed
bottle of pills

It is important for AI/AN people to know their HIV status so they can take medicine to treat HIV if they have the virus. Taking HIV medicine every day can make the viral load undetectable. People who get and keep an undetectable viral load (or remain virally suppressed) can stay healthy for many years and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their sex partners.

AI/AN People with Diagnosed HIV in 41 States and the District of Columbia, 2018

These charts show the numbers of American Indian and Alaskan Native people and the continuum of care.

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* Had 2 viral load or CD4 tests at least 3 months apart in a year.
† Based on most recent viral load test.
Source: CDC. Selected national HIV prevention and care outcomes pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB] (slides).

HIV Stigma Among AI/AN People with Diagnosed HIV in the US, 2018

HIV Stigma negatively affects the health and well-being of all people with HIV.

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Ten-item scale ranging from 0 (no stigma) to 100 (high stigma) that measures personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and perceived public attitudes about people with HIV.
Source: CDC. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons with diagnosed HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2018 cycle (June 2018–May 2019) pdf icon[PDF – 905 KB]. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;25.

Deaths

During 2018, 43 AI/AN people with diagnosed HIV died in the US and dependent areas. These deaths could be from any cause.

  1. CDC. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons with diagnosed HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2018 cycle (June 2018–May 2019) pdf icon[PDF – 905 KB]. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;25.
  2. CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2018 (updated). HIV Surveillance Report 2020;31.
  3. CDC. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2014-2018. pdf icon[PDF – 3 MB] HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2020;25(1).
  4. CDC. High-impact HIV prevention: CDC’s approach to reducing HIV infections in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 400 KB].
  5. CDC. HIV infection risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance: injection drug use, 23 U.S. Cities, 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB].  HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;24.
  6. CDC. Improving HIV surveillance among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 553 KB].
  7. CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 4 MB]. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2020;25(2).
  8. CDC. Selected national HIV prevention and care outcomespdf icon (slides). Accessed April 14, 2021.
  9. Bertolli J, Lee LM, Sullivan PS, American Indian/Alaska Native Race/Ethnicity Data Validation Workgroup. Racial misidentification of American Indians/Alaska Natives in the HIV/AIDS reporting systems of five states and one urban health jurisdiction, US, 1984–2002. Public Health Rep2007;122(3):382-92. PubMed Abstractexternal icon.
  10. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian entities recognized and eligible to receive services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairsexternal iconFed Regist2020;85(20):5462-67.
  11. Kaiser Family Foundation. Key facts on health and health care by race and ethnicityexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  12. Kaiser Family Foundation. Poverty rate by race/ethnicityexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  13. National Center for Education Statistics. Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groupsexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  14. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2019external icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  15. United States Census Bureau. QuickFacts United States: American Indians and Alaska Natives. external iconAccessed April 14, 2021.
  16. Walters KL, Simoni JM, Evans-Campbell T. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: incorporating culture in an ‘indigenist’ stress-coping paradigm. Public Health Rep2002;117(1):s104-17. PubMed Abstractexternal icon.

a Adult and adolescent AI/AN people aged 13 and older.
b Percentage of AI/AN people reporting only one race. The US Census Bureau’s population estimates include the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
c American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.

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