HIV and American Indian/Alaska Native People: HIV Risk Behaviors

The risk of getting or transmitting HIV varies widely depending on the type of exposure or behavior. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment—for example, cookers.

Injection Behaviors Among AI/AN People Who Inject Drugs in 23 US Cities, 2018*
  1. CDC. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons with diagnosed HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2018 cycle (June 2018–May 2019) pdf icon[PDF – 905 KB]. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;25.
  2. CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2018 (updated). HIV Surveillance Report 2020;31.
  3. CDC. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2014-2018. pdf icon[PDF – 3 MB] HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2020;25(1).
  4. CDC. High-impact HIV prevention: CDC’s approach to reducing HIV infections in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 400 KB].
  5. CDC. HIV infection risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance: injection drug use, 23 U.S. Cities, 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB].  HIV Surveillance Special Report 2020;24.
  6. CDC. Improving HIV surveillance among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 553 KB].
  7. CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 4 MB]. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2020;25(2).
  8. CDC. Selected national HIV prevention and care outcomespdf icon (slides). Accessed April 14, 2021.
  9. Bertolli J, Lee LM, Sullivan PS, American Indian/Alaska Native Race/Ethnicity Data Validation Workgroup. Racial misidentification of American Indians/Alaska Natives in the HIV/AIDS reporting systems of five states and one urban health jurisdiction, US, 1984–2002. Public Health Rep2007;122(3):382-92. PubMed Abstractexternal icon.
  10. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian entities recognized and eligible to receive services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairsexternal iconFed Regist2020;85(20):5462-67.
  11. Kaiser Family Foundation. Key facts on health and health care by race and ethnicityexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  12. Kaiser Family Foundation. Poverty rate by race/ethnicityexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  13. National Center for Education Statistics. Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groupsexternal icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  14. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2019external icon. Accessed April 14, 2021.
  15. United States Census Bureau. QuickFacts United States: American Indians and Alaska Natives. external iconAccessed April 14, 2021.
  16. Walters KL, Simoni JM, Evans-Campbell T. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: incorporating culture in an ‘indigenist’ stress-coping paradigm. Public Health Rep2002;117(1):s104-17. PubMed Abstractexternal icon.

a Adult and adolescent AI/AN people aged 13 and older.
b Percentage of AI/AN people reporting only one race. The US Census Bureau’s population estimates include the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
c American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.