HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men: HIV Risk Behaviors
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions. While 2020 data on HIV diagnoses and prevention and care outcomes are available, we are not updating this web content with data from these reports.
The risk of getting or transmitting HIV varies widely depending on the type of exposure or behavior. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment—for example, cookers.
- CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Report 2021;32.
- CDC. Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2015–2019 [PDF – 3 MB]. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2021;26(1).
- CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2021;26(2).
- CDC. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance, 2019. Accessed September 1, 2021.
- CDC. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons with diagnosed HIV infection—Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2020 cycle (June 2020–May 2021). HIV Surveillance Special Report 2022;29.
- CDC. HIV infection risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 23 U.S. cities, 2017. HIV Surveillance Special Report 2019;22.
- CDC. HIV care outcomes among men who have sex with men with diagnosed HIV infection—United States, 2015. MMWR 2017;66(37):969-74.
- CDC. HIV testing experience before HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men—21 jurisdictions, United States, 2007–2013. MMWR 2016;65(37):999-1003.
- Clark HA, Oraka E, DiNenno EA, et al. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who have not previously tested for HIV: Results from the MSM testing initiative, United States (2012-2015). AIDS Behav 2019;23(2):359-65. PubMed abstract.
- Kwan CK, Rose CE, Brooks JT, Marks G, Sionean C. HIV testing among men at risk for acquiring HIV infection before and after the 2006 CDC recommendations. Public Health Rep 2016;131:311-9. PubMed abstract.