References & Resources for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
- Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings includes guidelines and an interactive training course.
- World Health Organization
- Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Surveillance Archive Emerging Disease Surveillance and Response: Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, World Health Organizationexternal icon
- A Guide to Clinical Management and Public Health Response for Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) Cdc-pdfpdf icon[1.5MB, 71 pages]external icon
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus a6 – Alabama, Connecticut, California, and Nevada, November 2011-February 2012. MMWR 2012;61:213-4.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths among children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease – Taiwan, Republic of China, April–July 1998. MMWR 1998;47;629–32. Erratum in MMWR 1998;47;718.
- Chan KP, Goh KT, Chong CY, Teo ES, Lau G, Ling AE. Epidemic hand, foot and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus 71, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003:78–85.
- Chan Y-F, AbuBakar S. Recombinant human enterovirus 71 in hand, foot and mouth disease patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1468–70.
- Fujimoto T, Iizuka S, Enomoto M, Abe K, Yamashita K, Hanaoka N, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011 [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):337-9.
- Gong LM, Ge Q, Yan JY, Lu YY, Feng Y, Mao HY, et al. Isolation and sequencing of vp1 region of enterovirus 71 strains in Zhejiang, China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2005;26:971–4. PubMedexternal icon
- Hamaguchi T, Fujisawa H, Sakai K, Okino S, Kurosaki N, Nishimura Y, et al. Acute encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of enterovirus 71 in adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:828–30.
- Li L, He Y, Yang H, Zhu J, Xu X, Dong J, et al. Genetic characteristics of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus a16 circulating from 1999 to 2004 in Shenzhen, People’s Republic of Chinaexternal icon. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3835–9.
- Lin SE, Zhang Q, Xie HP, Xie JP, He JX, Dong QL, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of enterovirus 71 isolated from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangdong and Fujian Provinces, 2000–2001external icon. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2004; 18:227–9.
- Lin T-Y, Twu S-J, Ho M-S, Chang L-Y, Lee C-Y. Enterovirus 71 outbreaks, Taiwan: occurrence and recognition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9.
- Ooi E-E, Phoon M-C, Ishak B, Chan S-H. Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:995–7.
- Ooi MH, Wong SC, Lewthwaite P, Cardosa MJ, Soloman T. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71. Lancet Infect Dis 2011:9;1097-1105. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
- Osterback R, Vuorinen T, Linna M, Susi P, Hyypiä T, Waris M. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1485–8.
- Shieh WJ, Jung SM, Hsueh C, Kuo TT, Mounts A, Parashar U, et al. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:146–8.
- Tu PV, Thao NT, Perera D, Huu TK, Tien NT, Thuong TC, et al. Epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern Vietnam, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1733–41.
- Wu TN, Tsai SF, Li SF, Lee TF, Huang TM, Wang ML, et al. Sentinel surveillance for enterovirus 71, taiwan, 1998. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:458–60.
- Yang ZH, Zhu QR, Li XZ, Wang XH, Wang JS, Hu JY, et al. Detection of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 from children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, 2002external icon. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2005;43:648–52.
Page last reviewed: December 6, 2019