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Publications, Data, & Statistics

Harmful Algal Blooms Overview

Chorus I, Bartram J, eds. Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. [PDF – 400 pages] London, United Kingdom: World Health Organization; Routledge, London; 1999.

D’Anglada LV. Editorial on the special issue “Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and public health: Progress and current challenges”. Toxins. 2015;7(11):4437-41.

Lopez CB, Dortch Q, Jewett EB, Garrison D. Scientific assessment of marine harmful algal blooms. [PDF – 72 pages] Washington DC: Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health of the Join Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology. Washington DC; 2008.

Lopez CB, Jewett, EB, Dortch Q, Walton BT, Hudnell HK. Scientific assessment of freshwater harmful algal blooms. [PDF – 78 pages] Washington DC: Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health of the Join Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology. Washington DC; 2008.

Animal Health Impacts

Backer LC, Miller M. Sentinel animals in a One Health approach to harmful cyanobacterial and algal blooms. Veterinary sciences. 2016;3(2):8.

Backer LC, Landsberg JH, Miller M, Keel K, Taylor TK. Canine cyanotoxin poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of suspected and confirmed cases from three data sources. Toxins. 2013;5(9):1597-628.

Bossart GD, Baden DG, Ewing RY, Roberts B, Wright SD. Brevetoxicosis in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from the 1996 epizootic: gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features. Toxicol Path. 1998;26(2):276-82.

Castle KT, Flewelling LJ, Bryan J, Kramer A, Lindsay J, Nevada C, Stablein W, Wong D, Landsberg JH. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the gulf of Mexico. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49(4):955-64.

Chun CL, Ochsner U, Byappanahalli MN, Whitman RL, Tepp WH, Lin G, Johnson EA, Peller J, Sadowsky MJ. Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes. Environ Sci technol. 2013;47(6):2587-94.

Kim D, Yamasaki Y, Yamatogi T, Yamaguchi K, Matsuyama Y, Kang Y-S, Lee Y, Oda T. The possibility of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent toxic effects of Cochlodinium polykrikoides on damselfish (Chromis caerulea). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73(3): 613-618.

Scholin CA, Gulland F, Doucette GJ, Benson S, Busman M, Chavez FP, Cordaro J, DeLong R, De Vogelaere A, Harvey J. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature. 2000;403(6765):80-84.

Stewart I, Seawright AA, Shaw GR. Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds–an overview. In: Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms: state of the science and research needs: Springer; 2008;613-37.

Work TM, Barr B, Allison MB, Fritz L, Quilliam MA, Wright JLC. Epidemiology of domoic acid poisoning in brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) and Brandt’s cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in California. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1993;24(1):54-62.

Zaias J BL, Fleming LE. Human-animal medicine. Clinical approaches to zoonoses, toxicants, and other shared health risks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(6):1050.

Biology and Distribution

Baptista MS, Vasconcelos MT. Cyanobacteria metal interactions: requirements, toxicity, and ecological implications. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2006;32(3):127-37.

Cheng YS, Zhou Y, Irvin CM, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC. Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin. Mar Drugs. 2007;5(4):136-50.

Kirkpatrick B, Pierce R, Cheng YS, Henry MS, Blum P, Osborn S, Nierenberg K, Pederson BA, Fleming LE, Reich A. Inland transport of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins. Harmful Algae. 2010;9(2):186-89.

Naik, RK, Hedge S, Anil AC. Dinoflagellate community structure from the stratified environment of the Bay of Bengal, with special emphasis on harmful algal bloom species. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;182(1-4):15-30.

Saitou T, Sugiura N, Itayama T, Inamori Y, Matsumura M. Degradation of microcystin by biofilm in practical treatment facility. Water Sci Technol. 2002;46(11-12):237-44.

Zurawell RW, Chen H, Burke JM, Prepas EE. Hepatotoxic cyanobacteria: a review of the biological importance of microcystins in freshwater environments. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2005;8(1):1-37.

Economic Impacts

Dodds WK, Bouska WW, Eitzmann JL, Pilger TJ, Pitts KL, Riley AJ, Schlosser JT, Thornbrugh DJ. Eutrophication of U.S. freshwaters: analysis of potential economic damages. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43(1):12-9.

Hoagland P, Jin D, Polansky LY, Kirkpatrick B, Kirkpatrick G, Fleming LE, Reich A, Watkins SM, Ullmann, Backer LC. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1239-43.

Hoagland P, Scatasta S. Ecology of Harmful Algae. Vol 189. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; c2006. Chapter 30, The economic effects of harmful algal blooms; p. 391-402.

Exposure Assessments

Backer LC, Carmichael W, Kirkpatrick B, Williams C, Irvin M, Zhou Y, Johnson TB, Nierenberg K, Hill VR, Kieszak SM. Recreational exposure to low concentrations of microcystins during an algal bloom in a small lake. Mar Drugs. 2008;6(2):389-406.

Backer LC, Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Bean JA, Clark R, Johnson D, Wanner A, Tamer R.. Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: effects on a healthy worker population. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(5):644-9.

Backer LC, McNeel SV, Barber T, Kirkpatrick B, Williams C, Irvin M, Zhou Y, Johnson TB, Nierenberg K, Aubel M. Recreational exposure to microcystins during algal blooms in two California lakes. Toxicon. 2010;55(5):909-21.

Carmichael WW, eds. Assessment of blue-green algal toxins in raw and finished drinking water. [PDF – 208 pages] Denver, CO: AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works Association; 2001.

Carmichael WW. Health effects of toxin-producing cyanobacteria: “The CyanoHABs”. Human and ecological risk assessment: An international journal. 2001;7(5):1393-407.

Cheng YS, Zhou Y, Irvin CM, Pierce RH, Naar J, Backer LC, Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Baden DG. Characterization of marine aerosol for assessment of human exposure to brevetoxins. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(5):638-43.

Cheng YS, Zhou Y, Naar J, Irvin CM, Su WC, Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Pierce RH, Backer LC, Baden DG. Personal exposure to aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins). J Occup Environ Hyg. 2010;7(6):326-31.

Kirkpatrick B, Pierce R, Cheng YS, Henry MS, Blum P, Osborn S, Nierenberg K, Pederson BA, Fleming LE, Reich A. Inland transport of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins. Harmful Algae. 2010;9(2):186-89.

Stewart I, Carmichael WW, Sadler R, McGregor GB, Reardon K, Eaglesham GK, Wickramasinghe WA, Seawrite AA, Shaw GR. Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins. Environ Health. 2009;8:52.

Food and Fish Poisoning

Ansdell VE. Food poisoning from marine toxins. 2013.

Cetinkaya F, Mus TE. Shellfish poisoning and toxins. [PDF – 5 pages] J Biol Environ Sci. 2012;6:115-19.

Clark RF, Williams SR, Nordt SP, Manoguerra AS. A review of selected seafood poisonings. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999;26(3):175-84.

Friedman MA, Fernandez M, Backer LC, Dickey RW, Bernstein J, Schrank K, Kibler S, Stephan W, Gribble MO, Bienfang P, Bowen RE, Degrasse S, Quintana HAF, Loeffler CR, Weisman R, Blythe D, Berdalet E, Ayyar R, Clarkson-Townsend D, Swajian K, Brenner R, Brewer T, Fleming LE. An updated review of ciguatera fish poisoning: clinical, epidemiological, environmental, and public health management. [PDF – 41 pages]  Marine Drugs. 2017;15(72):doi:10.3309/md15030072.

Barrett KA, Nakao JH, Taylor EV, Eggers C, Gould LH. Fish-associated foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 1998-2015. [PDF – 7 pages] Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2017;14(9):537-43.

Harmful Algal Blooms and Climate Change

Moore SK, Trainer VL, Mantua NJ, Parker MS, Laws EA, Backer LC, Fleming LE. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health. Environ Health. 2008;7(Suppl 2):S4.

EPA. Climate change and harmful algal blooms. 2015.

Health Surveillance and Reporting

Backer LC, Niskar AS, Rubin C, Blindauer K, Christianson D, Naeher L, Rogers HS. Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(Suppl 5):797-801.

Hilborn ED, Roberts VA, Backer L, DeConno E, Egan JS, Hyde JB, Nicholas DC, Wiegert EJ, Billing LM, DiOrio M. Algal bloom–associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes — United States, 2009–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Rep. 2014;63(1):11-5.

Kirkpatrick B, Currier R, Nierenberg K, Reich A, Backer LC, Stumpf R, Fleming L, Kirkpatrick G. Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure. Sci Total Environ. 2008;402(1):1-8.

Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Backer LC, Bean JA, Tamer R, Kirkpatrick G, Kane T, Wanner A, Dalpra D, Reich A. Environmental exposures to Florida red tides: Effects on emergency room respiratory diagnoses admissions. Harmful algae. 2006;5(5):526-33.

Stewart I, Webb PM, Schluter PJ, Fleming LE, Burns JW, Gantar M, Backer LC, Shaw GR. Epidemiology of recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – an international prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:93.

Stewart I, Webb PM, Schluter PJ, Shaw GR. Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – a review of anecdotal and case reports, epidemiological studies and the challenges for epidemiologic assessment. Environ Health. 2006;5:6.

Resource Media, National Wildlife Federation. 2014 Harmful Algal Bloom State Survey: Summary of results and recommendations. Toxic Algae News. 2014.

Human Health Impacts

Azziz-Baumgartner E, Luber G, Conklin L, Tosteson TR, Grenade HR, Dickey RW, Backer LC.  Assessing the incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning with two surveys conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005-2006. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120(4):526-9.

Backer LB, McNeel SV, Barber T, Kirkpatrick B, Williams C, Irvin M, Zhou Y,  Johnson TB, Nierenberg K, Aubel  M, LePrell R, Chapman A, Foss A, Corum S, Hill VR, Kieszak SM,  Cheng Y-S. Recreational exposure to microcystins during algal blooms in two California lakes. Toxicon. 2010;55(5):909-21.

Backer LC. Impacts of Florida red tides on coastal communities. Harmful Algae. 2009;8(4):618-22.

Backer LC, Carmichael W, Kirkpatrick B, Williams C, Irvin M, Zhou Y, Johnson TB, Nierenberg K, Hill VR, Kieszak SM, Cheng Y-S. Recreational exposure to microcystins during a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom in a small lake. In Mayer AMS (ed). Marine Drugs. 2008;6(2):389-406.

Backer L, McGillicuddy DJ Jr. Harmful Algal Blooms: At the interface between coastal aceanography and human health. Oceanography. 2006;19(2):94-106.

Backer LC, Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Bean JA, Clark R, Johnson D, Wanner A, Tamer R, Baden D. Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: Impacts on a healthy worker population. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113-5:644-9.

Backer LC, Fleming LE, Rowan A, Cheng, Y-S, Benson J, Pierce RH, Zaias J, Bean J, Bossart GD, Johnson D, Quimbo R, Baden DG. Recreational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events. Harmful Algae. 2003;2:19-28.

Bean JA, Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC, Nierenberg K, Reich A, Cheng YS, Wanner A, Benson J, Naar J, Pierce R, Abraham WM, Kirkpatrick G, Hollenbeck J, Zaias J, Mendes E, Baden DG. Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and longitudinal respiratory effects in asthmatics. Harmful Algae. 2011;10(6):744-748.

Benson JM, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Stagner BB, Martin GK, Friedman M, Durr SE, Gomez A, McDonald J,  Fleming LE, Backer LC, Bourdelais AJ, Naar J, Baden DG.  Inhaled brevetoxin-3 reduces high frequency cochlear function in CBA/CaJ mice. J. Comp. Physiology A. Neuroethol.  Sens. Neuro. Behav. Physiol. 2005;191(7):619-26.

Berdaleti E; Fleming LE, Gowen R, Davidson K, Hess P, Backer LC, Moore SK, Hoagland P, Enevoldsen H.  Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing: challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. J Mar Biol Assoc U.K. 2015;2015. doi:10/1017/S0025315415001733.

Bienfang PK, DeFelice SV, Laws EA, Brand LE, Bidigare RR, Christensen S, Trapido-Rosenthal H, Hemscheidt TK, McGillicuddy DJ, Anderson DM, Solo-Gabriele HM, Boehm AB, Backer LC. Prominent human health impacts from several marine microbes: history, ecology, and public health implications. Int J Microbiol. 2011;2011:152815.

Cheng YS, Zhou Y, Irvin CM, Pierce RH, Naar J, Backer LC, Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Baden DG. 2005. Characterization of marine aerosol for assessment of human exposure to brevetoxins. Environ Health Perspect. 113-5:638.

Dietrich DR, Fischer A, Michel C, Höger SJ. Toxin mixture in cyanobacterial blooms–a critical comparison of reality with current procedures employed in human health risk assessment. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;619:885-912.

Fleming LE, Backer LC, Baden DG. Overview of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins: exposures and effects. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(5):618-20.

Fleming LE, Bean JA, Kirkpatrick B, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Naar J, Nierenberg K, Backer LC, Wanner A, Reich A, Zhou Y, Watkins S, Henry M, Zaias J, Abraham WM, Benson J, Cassedy A, Hollenbeck J, Kirkpatrick G, Clarke T, Baden DG. Exposure and effect assessment of aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(7):1095-1100.

Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC, Bean JA, Wanner A, Reich A, Zaias J, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Naar J, Abraham WM, Baden DG. Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma. Chest. 2007;131(1):187-94.

Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC, Bean JA, Wanner A, Dalpra D, Tamer R, Zaias J, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Naar J, Abraham W, Clark R, Zhou Y, Henry MS, Johnson D, Van De Bogart G, Bossart GD, Harrington M, Baden DG. Initial evaluation of the effects of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins (brevetoxins) in persons with asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(5):650-57.

Fleming LE, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC, Walsh CJ, Nierenberg K, Clark J, Reich A, Hollenbeck J, Benson J, Cheng YS, Naar J, Pierce R, Bourdelais AJ, Abraham WM, Kirkpatrick G, Zaias J, Wanner A, Mendes E, Shalat S, Hoagland P, Stephan W, Bean J, Watkins S, Clarke T, Byrne M, Baden DG. Review of Florida red tide and human health effects. Harmful Algae. 2011;10(2):224-33

Fosso-Kankeu E, Du Preez H, Jagals P. Health implications of lipopolysaccharide endotoxins in domestic container water used by rural households in South Africa. J Water Health. 2010;8(4):601-10.

Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, Huang X, Chu FS. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(5):435-39.

Hudnell HK. Chronic biotoxin-associated illness: multiple-system symptoms, a vision deficit, and effective treatment. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2005;27(5):733-43.

Hudnell HK, House D, Schmid J, Koltai D, Stopford W, Wilkins J, Savitz DA, Swinker M, Music S. Human visual function in the North Carolina clinical study on possible estuary-associated syndrome. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001;62(8):575-94.

Kite-Powell HL , Fleming LE, Backer LC, Faustman E, Hoagland P, Tsuchiya A, Younglove L, Wilcox BA, Gast R. Linking the oceans to public health: Where is the “human health” in “oceans and human health?” Mini-Monograph: Research in Oceans and Human Health. Environ Health. 2008;7(Suppl 2):S6.

Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Bean JA, Nierenberg K, Backer LC, Cheng YS, Pierce R, Reich A, Naar J, Wanner A, Abraham WM, Zhou Y, Hollenbeck J, Baden DG. Aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma: Continued health effects after 1h beach exposure. Harmful algae. 2011;10(2):138-43.

Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Backer LC, Bean JA, Tamer R, Kirkpatrick G, Kane T, Wanner A, Dalpra D, Reich A, Baden D. Environmental exposures to Florida red tides: effects on emergency room respiratory diagnoses admissions. Harmful Algae. 2006;5:526-33.

Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Squicciarini D, Backer LC, Clark R, Abraham W, Benson J, Cheng YS, Johnson D, Pierce R, Zaias J, Bossart GD, Baden DG. Literature review of Florida red tide: implications for human health effects. Harmful Algae. 2004;3(2):99-115.

Milian A, Nierenberg K, Fleming LE, Bean JA, Wanner A, Reich A, Backer LC, Jayroe D, Kirkpatrick B. Reported respiratory symptom intensity in asthmatics during exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins. J Asthma. 2007;44(7):583-87.

National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. Human health syndromes. NCCOS phytoplankton monitoring network. 2013.

Osborne NJ, Shaw GR. Dermatitis associated with exposure to a marine cyanobacterium during recreational water exposure. BMC Dermatol. 2008;8:5.

Osborne NJ, Shaw GR, Webb PM. Health effects of recreational exposure to Moreton Bay, Australia waters during a Lyngbya majuscula bloom. Environ Int. 2007;33(3):309-14.

Osborne NJ, Webb PM, Shaw GR. The toxins of Lyngbya majuscula and their human and ecological health effects. Environ Int. 2001;27(5):381-92.

Penotti R, Scallan E, Backer L, Thomas J,  Angulo FJ.  Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisoning in the United States. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013;10(12):1059-66.

Pierce RH, Henry MS, Blum PC, Hamel SL, Kirkpatrick B, Cheng Y-S, Zhou Y, Irvin CM,  Naar J, Weidner A, Fleming LE, Backer LC, Baden DG. Brevetoxin composition in water and marine aerosol along a Florida beach: Assessing potential human exposure to marine biotoxins. Harmful Algae. 2005;4:965-972.

Shoemaker RC, Hudnell HK. Possible estuary-associated syndrome: symptoms, vision, and treatment. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109(5):539-45.

Stewart I, Schluter PJ, Shaw GR. Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review. Environ Health. 2006;5:7.

Stewart I, Seawright AA, Schluter PJ, Shaw GR. Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin. BMC Dermatol. 2006;6:5.

Stewart I, PM Webb, PJ Schluter, LE Fleming, JW Burns, Jr., M Gantar, LC Backer, GR Shaw. Acute effects of recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria—a prospective epidemiology study. In:  Harmful Algae 2002. Proceedings of the Xth International Conference on Harmful Algae.  Steidinger, KA, JH Landsberg, CR Thomas, and GA Vargo (Eds).  Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, 2003.

Swinker M, Tester P, Koltai Attix D, Schmechel D. Human health effects of exposure to Pfiesteria piscicida: a review. Microbes Infect. 2002;4(7):751-62.

EPA. Health and Ecological Effects. 2014.

Laboratory Methods

Baptista MS, Cianca RC, Lopes VR, Almeida CM, Vasconcelos VM. Determination of the non protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in estuarine cyanobacteria by capillary electrophoresis. Toxicon. 2011;58(5):410-4.

Benson JM, Gomez AP, Statom GL, Tibbetts BM, Fleming LE, Backer LC, Reich A, Baden DG. Placental transport of brevetoxin-3 in CD-1 mice. Toxicon. 2006;48(8):1018-26.

Cervantes Cianca RC, Baptista MS, Lopes VR, Vasconcelos VM. The non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in Portuguese cyanobacterial isolates. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2473-9.

Cianca RC, Baptista MS, Silva LP, Lopes VR, Vasconcelos VM. Reversed-phase HPLC/FD method for the quantitative analysis of the neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in cyanobacteria. Toxicon. 2012;59(3):379-84.

Dunlop RA, Cox PA, Banack SA, Rodgers KJ. The non-protein amino acid BMAA is misincorporated into human proteins in place of L-serine causing protein misfolding and aggregation. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e75376.

Leibovitz, H, Rhode, S, Wichman, M, Bennett J, Wright, Sarah. A freshwater algal toxin guidance document for public health laboratories. [PDF – 14 pages] Maryland, United States: Association of Public Health Laboratories; Silver Spring, Maryland; 2017.

Management and Response

Anderson DM. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Ocean Coast Manag. 2009;52(7):342

Backer LC. Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs): Developing a public health response. [PDF – 12 pages] Lake Reserv Manage. 2002;18(1):20-31.

Jewett EB, Lopez CB, Dortch Q, Etheridge SM, Backer LC. Harmful algal bloom management and response: Assessment and plan. [PDF – 86 pages] Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health of the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology. 2008.

Koreivienė J, Anne O, Kasperovičienė J, Burškytė V. Cyanotoxin management and human health risk mitigation in recreational waters. Environ Monit Assess. 2014;186(7):4443-59.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Harmful Algal Blooms: FAQs. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. 2014.

Westrick JA, Szlag DC, Southwell BJ, Sinclair J. A review of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal/inactivation in drinking water treatment. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397(5):1705-14.

Outreach and Education

Nierenberg K, Byrne M, Fleming LE, Stephan W, Reich A, Backer LC, Tanga E, Dalpra DR, Kirkpatrick B. Florida red tide perception: residents versus tourists. Harmful Algae. 2010;9(6):600-06.

Nierenberg K, Hollenbeck J, Fleming LE, Stephan W, Reich A, Backer LC, Currier R, Kirkpatrick B. Frontiers in outreach and education: The Florida red tide experience. Harmful Algae. 2011;10(4):374-80.

Nierenberg K, Reich A, Currier R, Kirkpatrick B, Backer LC, Stumpf R, Fleming L, Kirkpatrick G. Beaches and HABs: Successful expansion of the Florida red tide reporting system for protection of public health through community education and outreach. Fla J Environ Health. 2009;(203):18-24.

Stone D, Bress W. Addressing public health risks for cyanobacteria in recreational freshwaters: the Oregon and Vermont framework. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2007;3(1):137-43.

Policies and Regulation

Federal Leadership Committee for the Chesapeake Bay. Executive Order 13508: Strategy for protecting and restoring the Chesapeake Bay watershed. [PDF – 173 pages] 2010.

Hudnell HK. The state of U.S. freshwater harmful algal blooms assessments, policy and legislation. Toxicon. 2010;55(5):1024-34.

Hudnell HK, Dortch Q. A synopsis of research needs identified at the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;619:17-43.

Hudnell HK, Dortch Q, Zenick H. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;619:1-16.

EPA. Guidelines and Recommendations. 2016.

EPA. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. [PDF – 48 pages] 2012.

EPA. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. 2012.

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