Clinical Treatment Guidelines

Prevention Guidelines

Progress Towards Vaccines


Surveillance Guidelines

Kotloff K, Van Beneden C. Standardization of epidemiologic protocols for surveillance of acute diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Pharyngitis, impetigo, and invasive diseases. 2008.

Carapetis JR, Paar J, Cherian T. Standardization of epidemiologic protocols for surveillance of post-streptococcal sequelae: Acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. 2006.


Nanduri SA, Metcalf BJ, Arwady MA, et al. A prolonged and large outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal disease within a nursing home: Repeated intra-facility transmission of a single strain. J Clin Microbiol. 2019;25(2):248.e1–7.

Adebanjo T, Mosites E, Van Beneden CA, et al. Risk factors for group A Streptococcus colonization during an outbreak among people experiencing homelessness in Anchorage, Alaska, 2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(11):1784–7.

Ahmed S, Diebold KE, Brandvold JM, et al. The role of wound care in two group A streptococcal outbreaks in a Chicago skilled nursing facility, 2015–2016. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(7):ofy145.

Mosites E, Frick A, Gounder P, et al. Outbreak of invasive infections from subtype 3 group A Streptococcus among homeless adults — Anchorage, Alaska, 2016–2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;66(7):1068–74.

Kobayashi M, Lyman MM, Francois Watkins LK, et al. A cluster of group A streptococcal infections in a skilled nursing facility—the potential role of healthcare worker presenteeism. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(12):e279–84.

Harrist A, Van Houten C, Shulman ST, Van Beneden C, Murphy T. Notes from the Field: Group A streptococcal pharyngitis misdiagnoses at a rural urgent-care clinic – Wyoming, March 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;64(50):1383–5.

Dooling KL, Crist MB, Nguyen DB, et al. Investigation of a prolonged group A streptococcal outbreak among residents of a skilled nursing facility, Georgia, 2009–2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(11):1562–7.

Deutscher M, Schillie S, Gould C, et al. Investigation of a group A streptococcal outbreak among residents of a long-term acute care hospital. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(8):988–94.

CDC. Invasive group A Streptococcus in a skilled nursing facility–Pennsylvania, 2009–2010. MMWR. 2011;60(42):1445–9.

Jordan HT, Richards CL Jr, Burton DC, Thigpen MC, Van Beneden CA. Group A streptococcal disease in long-term care facilities: Descriptive epidemiology and potential control measures. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(6):742–52.

Smith A, Li A, Tolomeo O, Tyrrell GJ, Jamieson F, Fisman D. Mass antibiotic treatment for group A Streptococcus outbreaks in two long-term care facilities. Emer Infect Dis. 2003;9(10):1260–5.

CDC. Outbreak of group A streptococcal pneumonia among Marine Corps recruits — California, November 1–December 20, 2002. MMWR. 2003;52(6):106–9.

CDC. Varicella related deaths among children — United States, 1997. MMWR. 1998;47(18):365–8.

CDC. Outbreak of invasive group A Streptococcus associated with varicella in a childcare center — Boston, Massachusetts, 1997. MMWR. 1997;46(40):944–8.

CDC. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of a cluster of invasive group A streptococcal illness — Spokane, Washington, 1999. MMWR. 1999;48(31):681–3.


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