Malaria

In this image, created in February, 2015, by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer, Alaine Kathryn Knipes, Ph.D., two laboratory technicians with Haiti’s ministry of health (MoH), Mr. Dorelus and Mrs. Byzette, were processing blood samples in order to test for lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria, using rapid diagnostic tests in a rural classroom located in the Nippes Department of Haiti. This was one of the entries in the 2015 CDC Connects, Public Health in Action Photo Contest.

Two Laboratory Technicians with Haiti’s Ministry of Health. ByCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer, Alaine Kathryn Knipes, Ph.D
View this image or search images by topic on the Public Health Image Library (PHIL).

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. Within the last decade, increasing numbers of partners and resources have rapidly increased malaria control efforts. This scale-up of interventions has saved 3.3 million lives globally and cut malaria mortality by 45%, leading to hopes and plans for elimination and ultimately eradication.

What is the global impact of malaria?

  • In 2016, an estimated 216 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 445,000 people died, mostly children in the African Region.
  • About 1,700 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year. The vast majority of cases in the United States are in travelers and immigrants returning from countries where malaria transmission occurs, many from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  • Where malaria is found depends mainly on climatic factors such as temperature, humidity, and rainfall. Malaria is transmitted in tropical and subtropical areas, where Anopheles mosquitoes can survive and multiply and malaria parasites can complete their growth cycle in the mosquitoes.

Who is at risk?

  • The highest transmission is found in Africa South of the Sahara and in parts of Oceania such as Papua New Guinea. In many temperate areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, economic development and public health measures have succeeded in eliminating malaria. However, most of these areas have Anopheles mosquitoes that can transmit malaria, and reintroduction of the disease is a constant risk.
  • While a number of companies and groups are working on developing a malaria vaccine, there is currently no effective vaccine on the market.

What is CDC doing?

  • For more than 60 years, CDC has provided scientific leadership in public health efforts to fight malaria, increasing global capacity to prevent death and illness from malaria. CDC helped develop and evaluate four key global malaria interventions: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), rapid tests to diagnose malaria and artemisinin-based combination therapies to treat malaria patients; intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women; and indoor residual house spraying (IRS)—all recommended by WHO and supported by The President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI). With PMI, CDC’s expertise in strategic science focuses on making sure these interventions remain effective and continue to save lives.

Malaria control is carried out through recommended malaria treatment and prevention interventions. Prevention focuses on mosquito control (for example, through insecticides, water storage methods, and bed nets) and sometimes preventative antimalarial or fever treatment. Treatment of a patient with malaria depends on the country’s national guidelines, which typically take into consideration the type (species) of the infecting parasite, the clinical status of the patient, any accompanying illness(es) or condition(s), pregnancy, drug allergies/other medications taken by the patient, and where the infection was acquired as well as the presence of antimalarial drug resistance there.

NEW GUIDANCE: CDC Announces Use of Artesunate for Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States
NEW GUIDANCE: CDC Announces Use of Artesunate for Treatment of Severe Malaria in the United States

Malaria has long been a major cause of illness and death worldwide. In the United States, an average of 1,700 travelers to malaria-endemic countries return with malaria, and that average is increasing. Among those, about 300 cases present with severe malaria. The only FDA-approved intravenous antimalarial in the United States, quinidine, has been discontinued, and starting April 1, 2019, will no longer be available. Artesunate is the first-line, WHO-recommended treatment for severe malaria, and starting on April 1, all U.S. clinicians must call CDC to obtain IV artesunate to treat cases of severe malaria.

The prevention and treatment of severe malaria is also a global health security priority. Drug resistant malaria parasites can move across borders. CDC supports strengthening national health systems and capacity to detect and identify resistant strains of malaria parasites worldwide.

Learn More:

Artesunate – CDC in the News

Pharmacy Times: New CDC Guidance Recommends Artesunate as First-Line Treatment for Severe MalariaExternal – March 29, 2019
Artestenate is the world standard. The ideal situation would be to have our artesunate FDA approved. Until then, we have this mechanism to have it released [on a limited basis].
-Dr. Katherine Tan, Domestic Malaria Branch, CGH’s Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria

Infectious Disease News: Artesunate becomes first-line treatment for severe malaria in USExternal – March 28, 2019

A community-based cross-sectional survey where trained field workers are using malaria rapid diagnostic tests to measure malaria parasite prevalence in western Kenya.

A community-based cross-sectional survey where trained field workers are using malaria rapid diagnostic tests to measure malaria parasite prevalence in western Kenya.

DPDM’s lab scientists maintain an insectary to support research on vector borne parasites around the world, providing clean colonies of insects for academic and other research.

DPDM’s lab scientists maintain an insectary to support research on vector borne parasites around the world, providing clean colonies of insects for academic and other research.

CDC works with the US Presidents’ malaria initiative led by USAID to distribute bed nets to protect families in 24 countries.

CDC works with the US Presidents’ malaria initiative led by USAID to distribute bed nets to protect families in 24 countries.

Page last reviewed: April 1, 2019
Content source: Global Health