Global Rubella Publications

The scientific publications below are authored or co-authored by CDC scientists within the Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health.

What is rubella?

Rubella (also called German measles) remains a leading, preventable cause of infant death and birth defects. Rubella vaccine is administered through national immunization programs in 173 countries, with two more expected to launch in 2021. Ninety percent of countries worldwide provide protection at 9-12 months of age against rubella infection, and national immunization programs are driving progress toward rubella elimination one country and one region at a time. The Americas have been rubella-free since 2015, and most WHO regions remain on track for rubella elimination despite regional setbacks and COVID-19-related disruptions. The herd immunity threshold for rubella is lower than for measles, and a single dose of vaccine confers lifetime immunity against rubella, unlike the two doses required for measles. Consequently, progress against rubella is outpacing measles progress, and global rubella elimination is expected to be achieved ahead of measles elimination.


Progress toward rubella elimination — World Health Organization European Region, 2005–2019.
O’Connor P, Yankovic D, Zimmerman L, Ben Mamou M, Reef S. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70:833–839. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a1


The potential role of using vaccine patches to induce immunity: platform and pathways to innovation and commercializationexternal icon.
Badizadegan K, Goodson JL, Rota PA, Thompson KM. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2020;19(2):175–194. doi:10.1080/14760584.2020.1732215

Routine vaccination coverage — worldwide, 2019.
Chard AN, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Sodha SV, Wallace AS. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;69:1706–1710. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6945a7

Vaccination coverage survey and seroprevalence among forcibly displaced Rohingya children, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 2018: a cross-sectional study.external icon
Feldstein LR, Bennett SD, Estivariz CF, et al. PLoS Med. 2020;17(3):e1003071. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003071

Recent setbacks in measles elimination: the importance of investing in innovations for immunizationsexternal icon.
Goodson JL. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35(Suppl 1):15. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.21740

Progress toward rubella elimination — Western Pacific Region, 2000–2019.
Knapp JK, Mariano KM, Pastore R, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(24):744–750. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6924a4

Global vaccine action plan lessons learned I: recommendations for the next decadeexternal icon.
MacDonald N, Mohsni E, Al-Mazrou Y, et al. Vaccine. 2020;38(33):5364–5371. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.003

The African Region early experience with structures for the verification of measles elimination — a reviewexternal icon.
Masresha B, Luce R, Tanifum P, Lebo E, Dosseh A, Mihigo R. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35(Suppl 1):1. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.19061

Seroprevalence of measles, rubella, tetanus, and diphtheria antibodies among children in Haiti, 2017external icon.
Minta AA, Andre-Alboth J, Childs L, et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct;103(4):1717­–1725. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112

The epidemiology of rubella, 2007–2018: an ecological analysis of surveillance dataexternal icon.
Patel MK, Antoni S, Danovaro-Holliday MC, et al. Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Nov;8(11):e1399-e1407. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30320-X

A microneedle patch for measles and rubella vaccination: a game changer for achieving eliminationexternal icon.
Prausnitz MR, Goodson JL, Rota PA, Orenstein WA. Curr Opin Virol. 2020;41:68–76. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2020.05.005


Successes and challenges for preventing measles, mumps and rubella by vaccinationexternal icon
Bankamp B, Hickman C, Icenogle JP, Rota PA. Curr Opin Virol. 2019;34:110–116. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2019.01.002

Genetic characterization of measles and rubella viruses detected through global measles and rubella elimination surveillance, 2016­–2018external icon.
Brown KE, Rota PA, Goodson JL, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(26):587-591. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6826a3

Accelerating measles and rubella elimination through research and innovation — findings from the Measles & Rubella Initiative research prioritization process, 2016external icon.
Grant GB, Masresha BG, Moss WJ, et al. Vaccine. 2019;37(38):5754–5761. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.081

Progress toward rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination — worldwide, 2000–2018external icon.
Grant GB, Desai S, Dumolard L, Kretsinger K, Reef SE. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(39):855–859. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6839a5

Research priorities for accelerating progress toward measles and rubella elimination identified by a cross-sectional web-based surveyexternal icon.
Kriss JL, Grant GB, Moss WJ, et al. Vaccine. 2019 Sep 10;37(38): 5745–5753. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.058

Is there any harm in administering extra-doses of vaccine to a person? Excess doses of vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2007–2017external icon.
Moro PL, Arana J, Marquez PL, et al. Vaccine. 2019;37(28):3730–3734. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.088

Assessment of economic burden of concurrent measles and rubella outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012external icon.
Njau J, Janta D, Stanescu A, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(6):1101-1109. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180339


Progress and challenges in measles and rubella elimination in the WHO European Regionexternal icon.
Datta SS, O'Connor PM, Jankovic D, et al. Vaccine. 2018 Aug 28;36(36):5408–5415. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.042

Use of the revised World Health Organization cluster survey methodology to classify measles-rubella vaccination campaign coverage in 47 counties in Kenya, 2016external icon.
Subaiya S, Tabu C, N'ganga J, et al. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0199786. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199786

Rubella vaccine: a tale of appropriate caution and remarkable successexternal icon.
Zimmerman LA, Reef SE, Orenstein WA. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jan 1;172(1):95–96. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4178

Page last reviewed: June 10, 2021
Content source: Global Immunization