Global Measles Publications

The scientific publications below are authored or co-authored by CDC scientists within the Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health.

What is Measles?

Two doses of inexpensive vaccine confer lifetime immunity against measles. Although vaccination prevented an estimated 23.2 million measles deaths 2000–2018, more than 130,000 persons — mostly children — still die from measles around the world each year. The United States was declared measles-free in 2000, and measles and rubella were eliminated throughout the Western Hemisphere in 2016, but the global outlook is uncertain. Measles-control milestones have not been achieved in most World Health Organization regions, reported measles incidence has increased worldwide since 2016, and global measles deaths have increased since 2017. Large measles outbreaks continue to occur in countries with weak immunization systems, and cases are expected to rise worldwide with the easing of COVID-19-related travel restrictions. To eliminate measles, an achievable global target, countries must reach vaccination coverage rates of 95% or higher with two doses of measles-containing vaccine.


The potential role of using vaccine patches to induce immunity: platform and pathways to innovation and commercializationexternal icon.
Badizadegan K, Goodson JL, Rota PA, Thompson KM. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2020 Feb;19(2):175–194. doi:10.1080/14760584.2020.1732215

Rapid diagnostic tests to address challenges for global measles surveillanceexternal icon.
Brown DW, Warrener L, Scobie HM, et al. Curr Opin Virol. 020 Apr;41:77–84. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2020.05.007

Routine vaccination coverage — worldwide, 2019.
Chard AN, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Sodha SV, Wallace AS. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;69:1706–1710. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6945a7

Community-based surveillance in Côte d'Ivoireexternal icon.
Clara A, Ndiaye SM, Joseph B, et al. Health Secur. 2020;18(S1):S23-S33. doi:10.1089/hs.2019.0062

What it will take to achieve a world without measlesexternal icon.
Cochi SL, Schluter WW. J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 1;222(7):1073–1075. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa045

Access, demand, and utilization of childhood immunization services: a cross-sectional household survey in Western Area Urban district, Sierra Leone, 2019.external icon
Feldstein LR, Sutton R, Jalloh MF, et al. J Glob Health. 2020 Jun;10(1):010420. doi:10.7189/jogh.10.010420

Vaccination coverage survey and seroprevalence among forcibly displaced Rohingya children, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 2018: a cross-sectional study.external icon
Feldstein LR, Bennett SD, Estivariz CF, et al. PLoS Med. 2020;17(3):e1003071. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003071

Recent setbacks in measles elimination: the importance of investing in innovations for immunizationsexternal icon.
Goodson JL. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Feb 20;35(Suppl 1):15. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.21740

Strengthening national immunization technical advisory groups in resource-limited settings: current and potential linkages with polio national certification committeesexternal icon.
Greene SA, Anya BM, Asghar H, et al. Health Res Policy Syst. 2020;18(1):116. doi:10.1186/s12961-020-00632-7

Assessment of VaxTrac electronic immunization registry in an urban district in Sierra Leone: implications for data quality, defaulter tracking, and policyexternal icon.
Jalloh MF, Namageyo-Funa A, Gleason B, et al. Vaccine. 2020;38(39):6103–6111. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.07.031.

Challenges to achieving measles elimination, Georgia, 2013–2018external icon.
Khetsuriani N, Sanadze K, Chlikadze R, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(11):2565–2577. doi:10.3201/eid2611.200259

High risk of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following measles outbreaks in Georgiaexternal icon.
Khetsuriani N, Sanadze K, Abuladze M, Tatishvili N. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 June;26(6):737–742. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2019.10.035

Risk factors for measles virus infection and susceptibility in persons aged 15 years and older in China: a multi-site case-control study, 2012-2013external icon.
Ma C, Hao L, Rodewald L, et al. Vaccine. 2020 Apr 3;38(16):3210–3217. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.03.006

The African Region early experience with structures for the verification of measles elimination — a reviewexternal icon.
Masresha B, Luce R, Tanifum P, Lebo E, Dosseh A, & Mihigo R. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35(Suppl 1): 1. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.19061 [WHO-authored, keep?]

The impact of a prolonged Ebola outbreak on measles elimination activities in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015external icon.
Masresha BG, Luce R Jr, Weldegebriel G, Katsande R, Gasasira A, Mihigo R. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Jan 6;35(Suppl 1):8. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.19059

Seroprevalence of measles, rubella, tetanus, and diphtheria antibodies among children in Haiti, 2017external icon.
Minta AA, Andre-Alboth J, Childs L, et al. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct;103(4):1717­–1725. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112

Action needed now to prevent further increases in measles and measles deaths in the coming yearsexternal icon.
Mulholland K, Kretsinger K, Wondwossen L, Crowcroft N.  Lancet. 2020 Dec 5;396(10265):1782–1784. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32394-1

Measles and rubella IgG seroprevalence in persons 6 months–35 years of age, Mongolia, 2016external icon.
Nogareda F, Gunregjav N, Sarankhuu A, et al. Vaccine. 2020 May 27;38(26):4200–4208. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.024

The changing global epidemiology of measles, 2013–2018external icon.
Patel MK, Antoni S, Nedelec Y, Sodha S, Menning L, Ogbuanu IU, Gacic Dobo M. J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 1;222(7):1117–1128. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa044

Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination — Worldwide, 2000–2019.
Patel MK, Goodson JL, Alexander JP Jr., et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:1700–1705. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6945a6

A microneedle patch for measles and rubella vaccination: a game changer for achieving eliminationexternal icon.
Prausnitz MR, Goodson JL, Rota PA, Orenstein WA. Curr Opin Virol. 2020;41:68–76. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2020.05.005

Progress towards measles elimination in Eritrea: 2003–2018external icon.
Yehdego T, Yhdego TK, Masresha B, et al. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Jan 3;35(Suppl 1):7. doi:10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.1.19126


Spread of measles in Europe and implications for US travelersexternal icon.
Angelo KM, Gastañaduy PA, Walker AT, et al. Pediatrics. 2019;144(1):e20190414. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-0414

Successes and challenges for preventing measles, mumps and rubella by vaccinationexternal icon.
Bankamp B, Hickman C, Icenogle JP, Rota PA. Curr Opin Virol. 2019;34:110-116. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2019.01.002

Use of FTA cards to transport throat swabs and oral fluid samples for molecular detection and genotyping of measles and rubella virusesexternal icon.
Bankamp B, Sein C, Pukuta Simbu E, et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2019 Apr 26;57(5). doi:10.1128/JCM.00048-19

Genetic characterization of measles and rubella viruses detected through global measles and rubella elimination surveillance, 2016­–2018external icon.
Brown KE, Rota PA, Goodson JL, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(26):587–591. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6826a3

Combining serological and contact data to derive target immunity levels for achieving and maintaining measles eliminationexternal icon.
Funk S, Knapp JK, Lebo E, et al. BMC Med. 2019 Sep 25;17(1):180. doi:10.1186/s12916-019-1413-7

Accelerating measles and rubella elimination through research and innovation — findings from the Measles & Rubella Initiative research prioritization process, 2016external icon.
Grant GB, Masresha BG, Moss WJ, et al. Vaccine. 2019;37(38):5754-5761. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.081

Evaluating vaccination policies to accelerate measles elimination in China: a meta-population modelling studyexternal icon [published correction appears in Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Aug 1;48(4):1385].
Hao L, Glasser JW, Su Q, et al. Int J Epidemiol. 2019;48(4):1240-1251. doi:10.1093/ije/dyz058

The clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of measles-mumps-rubella vaccination to prevent measles importations among international travelers from the United Statesexternal icon.
Hyle EP, Fields NF, Fiebelkorn AP, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69(2):306-315. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy861

Measles and rubella seroprevalence among adults in Georgia in 2015: helping guide the elimination effortsexternal icon.
Khetsuriani N, Chitadze N, Russell S, Ben Mamou M. Epidemiol Infect. 2019 Dec 11;147:e319. doi:10.1017/S0950268819002048

Research priorities for accelerating progress toward measles and rubella elimination identified by a cross-sectional web-based surveyexternal icon.
Kriss JL, Grant GB, Moss WJ, et al. Vaccine. 2019 Sep 10;37(38): 5745–5753. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.058

International importations of measles virus into the United States during the postelimination era, 2001–2016external icon.
Lee AD, Clemmons NS, Patel M, Gastañaduy PA. J Infect Dis. 2019;219(10):1616-1623. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiy701

Economic value of vaccinating geographically hard-to-reach populations with measles vaccine: A modeling application in Kenyaexternal icon.
Lee BY, Brown ST, Haidari LA, et al. Vaccine. 2019 Apr 17;37(17): 2377–2386. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.007

Increase in infant measles deaths during a nationwide measles outbreak — Mongolia, 2015–2016external icon.
Lee CT, Hagan JE, Jantsansengee B, et al. J Infect Dis. 2019;220(11):1771-1779. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiz140

Immunogenicity and safety of measles-rubella vaccine co-administered with attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14–14–2 vaccine in infants aged 8 months in China: a non-inferiority randomised controlled trialexternal icon.
Li Y, Chu SY, Yue C, et al. Lancet. 2019 Apr 1;19(4):402–409. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30650-9

Progress toward measles elimination — China, January 2013–June 2019external icon.
Ma C, Rodewald L, Hao L, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(48):1112–1116. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6848a2

Progress toward measles elimination — Pakistan, 2000–2018.
Mere MO, Goodson JL, Chandio AK, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jun 7;68(22):505–510. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6822a4

Immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of measles vaccination in infants younger than 9 months: a systematic review and meta-analysisexternal icon.
Nic Lochlainn LM, de Gier B, van der Maas N, et al.  Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Nov;19(11):1235–1245. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30395-0

Effect of measles vaccination in infants younger than 9 months on the immune response to subsequent measles vaccine doses: a systematic review and meta-analysisexternal icon.
Nic Lochlainn LM, de Gier B, van der Maas N, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Nov;19(11):1246–1254. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30396-2

Assessment of economic burden of concurrent measles and rubella outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012.
Njau J, Janta D, Stanescu A, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Jun;25(6):1101–1109. doi:10.3201/eid2506.180339

Classification of global measles cases in 2013–2017 as due to policy or vaccination failure: a retrospective review of global surveillance dataexternal icon.
Patel MK, Orenstein WA. Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Mar;7(3):e313–e320. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30492-3

Progress toward regional measles elimination — worldwide, 2000–2018external icon.
Patel MK, Dumolard L, Nedelec Y, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(48):1105–1111. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6848a1

Global routine vaccination coverage, 2018.
Peck M, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Nedelec Y, Sodha SS, Wallace AS. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 25;68(42):937–942. [Erratum in: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Nov 08;68(44):1010.] doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6842a1

Measlesexternal icon.
Strebel PM, Orenstein WA. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jul 25;381(4):349–357. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1905181

Measles and rubella immunity in the population of Bhutan, 2017external icon.
Wangchuk S, Nogareda F, Tshering N, et al. Vaccine. 2019 Oct 8;37(43):6463–6469. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.085

Progress toward measles elimination — European Region, 2009–2018external icon.
Zimmerman LA, Muscat M, Singh S, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(17):396–401. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6817a4


Progress toward regional measles elimination — worldwide, 2000–2017external icon.
Dabbagh A, Laws RL, Steulet C, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(47):1323–1329. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6747a6

Progress and challenges in measles and rubella elimination in the WHO European Regionexternal icon.
Datta SS, O'Connor PM, Jankovic D, et al. Vaccine. 2018 Aug 28;36(36):5408–5415. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.042

Measles outbreak response decision-making under uncertainty: a retrospective analysisexternal icon.
Fonnesbeck CJ, Shea K, Carran S, et al. J R Soc Interface. 2018 Mar;15(140). doi:10.1098/rsif.2017.0575

Measles-Rubella supplementary immunization activity readiness assessment — India, 2017–2018external icon.
Gurnani V, Haldar P, Khanal S, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(26):742–746. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6726a3

Progress toward measles elimination — Western Pacific Region, 2013–2017external icon.
Hagan JE, Kriss JL, Takashima Y, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(17):491–495. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6717a3

A microneedle patch for measles and rubella vaccination is immunogenic and protective in infant rhesus macaquesexternal icon.
Joyce JC, Carroll TD, Collins ML, et al. J Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 5;218(1):124–132. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiy139

Healthcare-associated measles following a nationwide outbreak in Mongoliaexternal icon.
Lake JG, Luvsansharav UO, Hagan JE, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 15;67(2):288–290. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy067

Global landscape of measles and rubella surveillanceexternal icon.
Patel MK, Gibson R, Cohen A, Dumolard L, Gacic-Dobo M. Vaccine. 2018 Nov 19;36(48):7385–7392. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.007

Use of the revised World Health Organization cluster survey methodology to classify measles-rubella vaccination campaign coverage in 47 counties in Kenya, 2016external icon.
Subaiya S, Tabu C, N'ganga J, et al. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0199786. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199786

Global routine vaccination coverage — 2017external icon.
VanderEnde K, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Conklin LM, & Wallace AS. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(45):1261–1264. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6745a2

Page last reviewed: March 30, 2021
Content source: Global Immunization