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Emergency Response and Recovery Scientific Publications

A young boy drinks water at a water collection point in an internally displaced persons camp in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo during a cholera outbreak. Photo by Tom Handzel (2008).

A young boy drinks water at a water collection point in an internally displaced persons camp in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo during a cholera outbreak. Photo by Tom Handzel (2008).

CDC’s Emergency Response and Recovery experts collaborate throughout CDC [135 KB, 1 page] along with ministries of health and international partners. Our publications reflect the diversity of public health issues related to emergency response in all regions of the world. The work cited below addresses disease-specific outbreaks and emergencies, surveillance, and cross-cutting priorities related to strengthening public health systems in — and after — humanitarian crises like war, famine, civil strife, natural disaster, genocide, or displacement.

Featured Publications

During times of conflict and emergencies, health care staff work long days under stressful conditions. Often, health professionals have also been impacted directly by the crisis. However, their well-being is not usually a priority, especially when it comes to managing stress. How do we best take care of those who care for others? Learn more about how Kosovo is working to ensure the well-being of their health care professionals.

van der Veen A, van Pietersom T, Lopes Cardozo B, Rushiti F, Ymerhalili G, Agani F. Integrating staff well-being into the Primary Health Care system: a case study in post-conflict Kosovo. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(21). (PDF) [692 KB, 12 Pages]

Publications

2015

2014

2013

2015

Bawo L, Fallah M, Kateh F, Nagbe T, Clement P, Gasasira A, et al. Elimination of Ebola Virus Transmission in Liberia – September 3, 2015. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015. 64(35): 979-980.

Browne LB, Menkir Z, Kahi V, Maina G, Asnakew S, Tubman M, et al. Notes from the field: hepatitis E outbreak among refugees from South Sudan – Gambella, Ethiopia, April 2014-January 2015. MMWR Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report 2015. 64(19): 537.

Hersey S, Martel LD, Jambai A, Keita S, Yoti Z, Meyer E, et al. Ebola Virus Disease — Sierra Leone and Guinea, August 2015 . MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015. 64(35): 981-984.

Williams HA, Dunville RL, Gerber SI, Erdman DD, Pesik N, Kuhar D, et al. CDC’s Early Response to a Novel Viral Disease, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), September 2012-May 2014 . Public Health Reports 2015. 130(4): 307-317.

2014

Brown CM, Aranas AE, Benenson GA, Brunette G, Cetron M, Chen TH, et al. Airport exit and entry screening for Ebola–August-November 10, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(49): 1163-1167.

Iyengar PJ, Wamala J, Ratto J, Blanton C, Malimbo M, Lukwago L, et al. Prevalence of nodding syndrome–Uganda, 2012-2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(28): 603-606.

Kilmarx PH, Clarke KR, Dietz PM, Hamel MJ, Husain F, McFadden JD, et al. Ebola virus disease in health care workers–Sierra Leone, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(49): 1168-1171.

Nyenswah T, Fahnbulleh M, Massaquoi M, Nagbe T, Bawo L, Falla JD, et al. Ebola epidemic–Liberia, March-October 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(46): 1082-1086.

Summers A, Nyenswah TG, Montgomery JM, Neatherlin J,Tappero J. Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic – four rural counties, Liberia, August-November 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(50): 1202-1204.

2013

Ahmed JA, Moturi E, Spiegel P, Schilperoord M, Burton W, Kassim NH, et al. Hepatitis E outbreak, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2013. 19(6): 1010-1012. (PDF) [373 KB, 3 Pages]

Sejvar JJ, Kakooza AM, Foltz JL, Makumbi I, Atai-Omoruto AD, Malimbo M, et al. Clinical, neurological, and electrophysiological features of nodding syndrome in Kitgum, Uganda: An observational case series. The Lancet Neurology 2013. 12(2): 166-174.

2015

Traicoff DA, Suarez-Rangel G, Espinosa-Wilkins Y, Lopez A, Diaz A,Caceres V. Strong and Flexible: Developing a Three-Tiered Curriculum for the Regional Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program. Pedagogy in Health Promotion 2015. 1(2): 74-82.

Nakao JH, Pringle J, Jones RW, Nix BE, Borders J, Heseltine G, et al. ‘One Health’ investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery – United States, 2012–2013. Epidemiology & Infection 2015. 143(Special Issue 10): 2178-2186.

Wallace RM, Reses H, Franka R, Dilius P, Fenelon N, Orciari L, et al. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2015. 9(11): e0004245.

2014

Ager A, Burnham G, Checchi F, Gayer M, Grais RF, Henkens M, et al. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises. Science 2014. 345(6202): 1290-1292.

Barzilay EJ. Afterword: Relevance and Realities of Anthropological Critiques of Epidemiology. Cambridge Anthropology 2014. 32(1): 114-120.

2013

Blanton CJ,Bilukha OO. The PROBIT approach in estimating the prevalence of wasting: Revisiting bias and precision. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013. 10(1). (PDF) [308 KB, 8 Pages]

2015

Cookson ST, Abaza H, Clarke KR, Burton A, Sabrah NA, Rumman KA, et al. Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy”. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(18). (PDF)

Frantz JL, Osborne AJ, Viala JE, Buteau J, Boncy J, Elong A, et al. *Specimen Referral Network to Rapidly Scale-Up CD4 Testing: The Hub and Spoke Model for Haiti. Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research 2015. 6(8): 488.

O’Reilly CE, Taylor EV, Ayers T, Fantu R, Abayneh SA, Marston B, et al. Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia. PLoS One 2014. 9(9): e107662. (PDF)

Pitman JP, Bocking A, Wilkinson R, Postma MJ, Basavaraju SV, von Finckenstein B, et al. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004-2011. Blood Transfusion 2015. 13(2): 240-247. (PDF)

Smith T, Samandari T, Abimbola T, Marston B, Sangrujee N. Implementation and Operational Research: Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy and Isoniazid Prophylaxis to Reduce Tuberculosis and Death in People Living With HIV in Botswana. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2015. 70(3): e84-93.

Saadani Hassani A,Marston BJ. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2015. 68 Suppl 3(S306-317).

Saadani Hassani A, Marston BJ,Kaplan JE. Assessment of the impact of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2015. 68 Suppl 3(S257-269).

Salyer SJ, Fitter DL, Milo R, Blanton C, Ho JL, Geffrard H, et al. Evaluation of the national tuberculosis surveillance program in Haiti. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2015. 19(9): 1045-1050. (PDF)

2014

O’Reilly CE, Taylor EV, Ayers T, Fantu R, Abayneh SA, Marston B, et al. Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia. PLoS One 2014. 9(9): e107662. (PDF) [312 KB, 9 Pages]

Sawadogo S, Shiningavamwe A, Chang J, Maher AD, Zhang G, Yang C, et al. Limited utility of dried-blood- and plasma spot-based screening for antiretroviral treatment failure with Cobas Ampliprep/TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2014. 52(11): 3878-3883. (PDF) [188 KB, 6 Pages]

Verani AR, Orago AS, Kariuki CN, Muraguri N, Koros D, Marston B, et al. Law and pediatric HIV testing: realizing the right to health in Kenya. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 2014. 13(4): 379-383.

2013

Baba SP, Jervase A, St. Louis M, Kainne Dokubo E,Clarke K. Notes from the Field: Investigation of high HIV prevalence in Western Equatoria State – South Sudan, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013. 62(22): 453-454. (PDF) [693 KB, 24 Pages]

Bamrah S, Mbithi A, Mermin JH, Boo T, Bunnell RE, Sharif S, et al. The impact of post-election violence on HIV and other clinical services and on mental health – Kenya, 2008. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2013. 28(1): 43-51. (PDF) [137 KB, 9 Pages]

Louis FJ, Anselme R, Ndongmo C, Buteau J, Boncy J, Dahourou G, et al. Evaluation of an external quality assessment program for hiv testing in haiti, 2006-2011. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 2013. 140(6): 867-871. (PDF) [693 KB, 5 Pages]

2015

Frantz JL, Osborne AJ, Viala JE, Buteau J, Boncy J, Elong A, et al. *Specimen Referral Network to Rapidly Scale-Up CD4 Testing: The Hub and Spoke Model for Haiti. Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research 2015. 6(8): 488.

Puttkammer N, Baseman JG, Devine EB, Valles JS, Hyppolite N, Garilus F, et al. An assessment of data quality in a multi-site electronic medical record system in Haiti. International Journal of Medical Informatics 2016. 86(104-116).

2013

Vertefeuille JF, Dowell SF, Domercant JW,Tappero JW. Cautious optimism on public health in post-earthquake Haiti. The Lancet 2013. 381(9866): 517-519.

2015

Dignam T, Garcia BR, De Leon M, Curtis G, Creanga AA, Azofeifa A, et al. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors Among Residents Younger Than 6 Years, Puerto Rico-2010. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2016. 22(1): E22-35.

James PT, Van den Briel N, Rozet A, Israel AD, Fenn B, Navarro-Colorado C. Low-dose RUTF protocol and improved service delivery lead to good programme outcomes in the treatment of uncomplicated SAM: a programme report from Myanmar. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2015. (PDF)

Krause S, Williams H, Onyango MA, Sami S, Doedens W, Giga N, et al. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(Suppl 1): S4. (PDF)

2014

Bilukha OO, Jayasekaran D, Burton A, Faender G, King’ori J, Amiri M, et al. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014. 63(29): 638-639.

Fabio M. Nutrition for refugee children: risks, screening, and treatment. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014. 44(7): 188-195.

Morof DF, Sami S, Mangeni M, Blanton C, Cardozo BL,Tomczyk B. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2014. 127(2): 138-143. (PDF) [199KB, 6 Pages]

Sami S, Williams HA, Krause S, Onyango MA, Burton A,Tomczyk B. Responding to the Syrian crisis: the needs of women and girls. The Lancet 2014. 383(9923): 1179-1181.(PDF)[60 KB, 3 Pages]

Verani AR, Orago AS, Kariuki CN, Muraguri N, Koros D, Marston B, et al. Law and pediatric HIV testing: realizing the right to health in Kenya. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 2014. 13(4): 379-383.

2015

Aoe T, Shetty S, Sivilli T, Blanton C, Ellis H, Geltman PL, et al. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015.

Ellis BH, Lankau EW, Ao T, Benson MA, Miller AB, Shetty S, et al. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 2015. 85(1): 43-55.

Van der Veen A, van Pietersom T, Lopes Cardozo B, Rushiti F, Ymerhalili G,Agani F. Integrating staff well-being into the Primary Health Care system: a case study in post-conflict Kosovo. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(21): (PDF)

2014

Mollica RF, Brooks R, Tor S, Lopes-Cardozo B, Silove D. The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 2014. 60(1): 6-20.(PDF)[1 MB, 15 Pages]

Vonnahme LA, Lankau EW, Ao T, Shetty S,Cardozo BL. Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression Among Bhutanese Refugees in the United States. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health 2014. 1-10.

2013

Cochran J, Geltman PL, Ellis H, Brown C, Anderton S, Montour J, et al. Suicide and suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees -United States, 2009-2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013. 62(26): 533-536.

2015

Navarro-Colorado C, Mahamud A, Burton A, Haskew C, Maina GK, Wagacha JB, et al. Measles outbreak response among adolescent and adult Somali refugees displaced by famine in Kenya and Ethiopia, 2011. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2014. 210(12): 1863-1870.

2015

Navarro-Colorado C, Mahamud A, Burton A, Haskew C, Maina GK, Wagacha JB, et al. Measles outbreak response among adolescent and adult Somali refugees displaced by famine in Kenya and Ethiopia, 2011. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2014. 210(12): 1863-1870.

2013

Garfield R. Health professionals in Syria. The Lancet 2013. 382(9888): 205-206.

2015

Krause S, Williams H, Onyango MA, Sami S, Doedens W, Giga N, et al. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(Suppl 1): S4. (PDF)

2014

Morof DF, Kerber K, Tomczyk B, Lawn J, Blanton C, Sami S, et al. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda. Conflict and Health 2014. 8(8). (PDF) [234 KB, 12 Pages]

2015

Breakwell L, Moturi E, Helgenberger L, Gopalani SV, Hales C, Lam E, et al. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults–Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015. 64(38): 1088-1092

Ducusin MJ, de Quiroz-Castro M, Roesel S, Garcia LC, Cecilio-Elfa D, Schluter WW, et al. Using the World Health Organization Measles Programmatic Risk Assessment Tool for Monitoring of Supplemental Immunization Activities in the Philippines. Risk Analysis 2015.

Gargano LM, Hajjeh R,Cookson ST. Pneumonia Prevention during a Humanitarian Emergency: Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Somalia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2015. (1-10).

Gargano LM, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Omer SB,Cookson ST. Comparison of impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus supplementary and routine immunization in a complex humanitarian emergency, Somali case study. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(5). (PDF)

Harris JB, Badiane O, Lam E, Nicholson J, Oumar Ba I, Diallo A, et al. Application of the World Health Organization Programmatic Assessment Tool for Risk of Measles Virus Transmission-Lessons Learned from a Measles Outbreak in Senegal. Risk Analysis 2015.

Lam E, McCarthy A, Brennan M. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 2015. 11(11): 2627-2636.

Lam E, Schluter WW, Masresha BG, Teleb N, Bravo-Alcántara P, Shefer A, et al. Development of a District-Level Programmatic Assessment Tool for Risk of Measles Virus Transmission. Risk Analysis 2015.

Tohme RA, Francois J, Wannemuehler K, Iyengar P, Dismer A, Adrien P, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2015. 21(6): 984-991.

2013

Chai SJ, Davies-Cole J,Cookson ST. Infectious disease burden and vaccination needs among asylees versus refugees, District of Columbia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013. 56(5): 652-658.

Oria PA, Arunga G, Lebo E, Wong JM, Emukule G, Muthoka P, et al. Assessing parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards seasonal influenza vaccination of children before and after a seasonal influenza vaccination effectiveness study in low-income urban and rural Kenya, 2010-2011. BMC Public Health 2013. 13(1).

Rainey JJ, Sugerman D, Brennan M, Cadet JR, Ernsly J, Lacapère F, et al. Rapid monitoring in vaccination campaigns during emergencies: The post-earthquake campaign in Haiti. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013. 91(12): 957-962.

2015

Saadani Hassani A,Marston BJ. Impact of cotrimoxazole and insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention on key outcomes among HIV-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2015. 68 Suppl 3(S306-317).

2013

Feikin DR, Njenga MK, Bigogo G, Aura B, Gikunju S, Balish A, et al. Additional diagnostic yield of adding serology to PCR in diagnosing viral acute respiratory infections in Kenyan patients 5 years of age and older. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2013. 20(1): 113-114. (PDF) [92 KB, 2 Pages]

Williams HA, Hering H,Spiegel P. Discourse on malaria elimination: Where do forcibly displaced persons fit in these discussions? Malaria Journal 2013. 12(1). (PDF) [171 KB, 5 Pages]

2015

Bilukha OO, Leidman EZ, Sultan AS,Jaffar Hussain S. Deaths due to Intentional Explosions in Selected Governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: Prospective Surveillance. Prehospital Disaster Medicine 2015. 1-7.

2013

Bilukha OO, Becknell K, Laurenge H, Danee L,Subedi KP. Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal, 2008-2011: Analysis of surveillance data. Conflict and Health 2013. 7(1). (PDF) [1.1 MB, 9 Pages]

2015

Berendes D, Levy K, Knee J, Handzel T,Hill VR. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. PLoS One 2015. 10(5): e0125336. (PDF)

Domercant JW, Guillaume FD, Marston BJ,Lowrance DW. Update on progress in selected public health programs after the 2010 earthquake and cholera epidemic–Haiti, 2014. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015. 64(6): 137-140.

Gelting RJ, Baloch MA, Zarate-Bermudez M, Hajmeer MN, Yee JC, Brown T, et al. A systems analysis of irrigation water quality in an environmental assessment of an E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the United States linked to iceberg lettuce. Agricultural Water Management 2015. 150(0): 111-118.

Husain F, Hardy C, Zekele L, Clatworthy D, Blanton C,Handzel T. A pilot study of a portable hand washing station for recently displaced refugees during an acute emergency in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(1): 26. (PDF)

Murray A, Pierre-Louis J, Joseph F, Sylvain G, Patrick M,Lantagne D. Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2015. 20(4): 462-470.

Williams HA, Gaines J, Patrick M, Berendes D, Fitter D,Handzel T. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012. PLoS One 2015. 10(11): e0142778. (PDF)

Phillips RM, Vujcic J, Boscoe A, Handzel T, Aninyasi M, Cookson ST, et al. Soap is not enough: handwashing practices and knowledge in refugee camps, Maban County, South Sudan. Conflict and Health 2015. 9(39). (PDF)

Tohme RA, Francois J, Wannemuehler K, Iyengar P, Dismer A, Adrien P, et al. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage, Barriers to Vaccination, and Adverse Events following Vaccination, Haiti, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2015. 21(6): 984-991.

2014

Derby KS, Ber Lucien MA, Leshem E, Steenland MW, Juin S, Joseph GA, et al. Short report: Hospitalizations and deaths caused by diarrhea in children five years old and younger at four hospitals in Haiti, 2010-2012. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2014. 90(2): 291-293. (PDF) [639 KB, 3 Pages]

2013

Barzilay EJ, Schaad N, Magloire R, Mung KS, Boncy J, Dahourou GA, et al. Cholera surveillance during the Haiti epidemic – The first 2 years. New England Journal of Medicine 2013. 368(7): 599-609.

Gelting R, Bliss K, Patrick M, Lockhart G,Handzel T. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: Past, present, and future. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. 89(4): 665-670. (PDF) [640 KB, 6 Pages]

Jackson BR, Talkington DF, Pruckler JM, Fouché MDB, Lafosse E, Nygren B, et al. Seroepidemiologic survey of epidemic cholera in Haiti to assess spectrum of illness and risk factors for severe disease. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. 89(4): 654-664. (PDF) [825 KB, 8 Pages]

Morof D, Cookson ST, Laver S, Chirundu D, Desai S, Mathenge P, et al. Community mortality from cholera: Urban and rural districts in Zimbabwe. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. 88(4): 645-650. (PDF) [542 KB, 6 Pages]

Patrick M, Berendes D, Murphy J, Bertrand F, Husain F,Handzel T. Access to safe water in rural artibonite, Haiti 16 months after the onset of the Cholera Epidemic. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. 89(4): 647-653. (PDF) [486 KB, 7 Pages]

Steenland MW, Joseph GA, Lucien MAB, Freeman N, Hast M, Nygren BL, et al. Laboratory-confirmed cholera and rotavirus among patients with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in Haiti, 2012-2013. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. 89(4): 641-646. (PDF) [320 KB, 6 Pages]

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