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Other Pathogenic Fungi

Photomicrograph of Exserohilum rostratum

Exserohilum is a common mold found in soil and on plants, especially grasses, and it thrives in warm and humid climates. Exserohilum is a very rare cause of infection in people, but it has been known to cause several different types of infections, including infection in the skin or the cornea (the clear, front part of the eye), which are typically due to skin or eye trauma. Exserohilum can also cause more invasive forms of infection in the sinuses, lungs, lining of the heart, and bone, which are thought to be more likely to occur in people with weak immune systems. Like other fungal infections, Exserohilum infections cannot be transmitted from person to person.

Exserohilum rostratum has been identified as one of the predominant pathogens in the multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other fungal infections associated with contaminated steroid injections.


General Information
  • Adler A, Yaniv I, Samra Z, Yacobovich J, Fisher S, Avrahami G, et al. Exserohilum: an emerging human pathogen. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;25(4):247-53.
  • de Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gené J, Figueras MJ, editors. Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd ed. Utrecht (Netherlands): Centraalbureau voor Schimmelkultures; 2000.
  • Revankar SG, Sutton DA. Melanized fungi in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23(4):884-928.
  • Sivanesan A. Graminicolous species of Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum and their teleomorphs. Wallingford (United Kingdom): C.A.B. International; 1987.
Case Reports
  • Adam RD, Paquin ML, Petersen EA, Saubolle MA, Rinaldi MG, Corcoran JG, et al. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by the fungal genera Bipolaris and Exserohilum. A report of 9 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 1986;65(4):203-217.
  • Anandi V, George JA, Thomas R, Brahmadathan KN, John TJ. Phaeohyphomycosis of the eye caused by Exserohilum rostratum in India. Mycoses 1991;34(11-12):489-491.
  • Aquino VM, Norvell JM, Krisher K, Mustafa MM. Fatal disseminated infection due to Exserohilum rostratum in a patient with aplastic anemia: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20(1):176-178.
  • Bhigjee AI, Parmanand V, Hoosen AA, Roux L, Bill PL. Disseminated Exserohilum infection [case reports letter]. J Infect 1993;26(3):336-7.
  • Burges GE, Walls CT, Maize JC. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum in an immunocompetent host. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(10):1346-1350.
  • Douer D, Goldschmied-Reouven A, Segev S, Ben-Bassat I. Human Exserohilum and Bipolaris infections: report of Exserohilum nasal infection in a neutropenic patient with acute leukemia and review of the literature. J Med Vet Mycol 1987;25(4):235-241.
  • McGinnis MR, Rinaldi MG, Winn RE. Emerging agents of phaeohyphomycosis: pathogenic species of Bipolaris and Exserohilum. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24(2):250-259.
  • Moneymaker CS, Shenep JL, Pearson TA, Field ML, Jenkins JJ. Primary cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Exserohilum rostratum (Drechslera rostrata) in a child with leukemia. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5(3):380-382.
  • Padhye AA, Ajello L, Wieden MA, Steinbronn KK. Phaeohyphomycosis of the nasal sinuses caused by a new species of Exserohilum. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24(2):245-249.
  • Tieman JM, Furner BB. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum mimicking hemorrhagic herpes zoster. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25(5 Pt 1):852-854.
Laboratory Identification of Medically Important Molds