1968 Pandemic (H3N2 virus)
The 1968 pandemic was caused by an influenza A (H3N2) virus comprised of two genes from an avian influenza A virus, including a new H3 hemagglutinin, but also contained the N2 neuraminidase from the 1957 H2N2 virus. It was first noted in the United States in September 1968. The estimated number of deaths was 1 million worldwide and about 100,000 in the United States. Most excess deaths were in people 65 years and older. The H3N2 virus continues to circulate worldwide as a seasonal influenza A virus. Seasonal H3N2 viruses, which are associated with severe illness in older people, undergo regular antigenic drift.
- Glezen WP. Emerging infections: pandemic influenza. Epidemiol Rev. 1996;18(1):64-76.External
- Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;12(1):9-14.External
- Simonsen L, Clarke MJ, Schonberger LB, Arden NH, Cox NJ, Fukuda K. Pandemic versus epidemic influenza mortality: a pattern of changing age distribution. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jul;178(1):53-60.External
- Viboud C, Grais RF, Lafont BA, Miller MA, Simonsen L; Multinational Influenza Seasonal Mortality Study Group. Multinational impact of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic: evidence for a smoldering pandemic. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 15;192(2):233-48.External