COPD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Do you suffer from a frequent cough or wheeze? Are you often short of breath when doing things like running errands or climbing stairs? Your lungs could be trying to tell you something. Learn if you are at risk for having COPD.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, makes breathing difficult for the 16 million Americans who have been diagnosed with COPD. Millions more suffer from COPD, but have not been diagnosed and are not being treated. COPD can limit your ability to work or even perform simple daily tasks.
Could you have COPD?
The main cause of COPD is tobacco smoke, so if you smoke or used to smoke, you are at a higher risk of having COPD. Exposure to air pollution in the home or at work, family history, and respiratory infections like pneumonia also increase your risk.
Symptoms of COPD include:
- Frequent coughing or wheezing
- Excess phlegm or sputum
- Shortness of breath
- Trouble taking a deep breath
If you experience these symptoms, you should discuss them with your physician.
How is COPD diagnosed?
COPD is diagnosed using a simple breathing test called spirometry.
Pulmonary rehabilitation helps improve COPD symptoms and allows you to be active without shortness of breath.
How is COPD treated?
Treating your COPD can greatly improve your quality of life. Treatment options that your doctor may consider include:
- Quitting smoking. For people who smoke, the most important aspect of treatment is to stop smoking.
- Avoiding tobacco smoke and other air pollutants at home and at work.
- Medication. Symptoms such as coughing or wheezing can be treated with medication.
- Pulmonary rehabilitation, a personalized treatment program that teaches you how to manage your COPD symptoms to improve quality of life. Plans may include learning to breathe better, how to conserve your energy, and advice on food and exercise.
- Avoiding lung infections. Lung infections can cause serious problems in people with COPD. Certain vaccines, such as flu and pneumonia vaccines, are especially important for people with COPD. Learn more about vaccination recommendations. Respiratory infections should be treated with antibiotics, if appropriate.
- Supplemental oxygen from a portable oxygen tank may be needed if blood oxygen levels are low.
- Page last reviewed: November 14, 2018
- Page last updated: November 14, 2018
- Content source:
- National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Population Health
- Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs