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Raw (Unpasteurized) Milk

ALERT: Exposures to Drug-Resistant Brucellosis Linked to Raw Milk

CDC and state health officials are investigating potential exposure to drug-resistant Brucella in 19 states, connected to consuming raw (unpasteurized) milk from Miller’s Biodiversity Farm in Quarryville, Pa.

Dairy products

If you’re thinking about drinking raw milk because you believe it has health benefits, consider other options. Raw milk can contain harmful germs, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can make you or your loved ones very sick.

Developing a healthy lifestyle involves many decisions about what you eat and drink. Raw milk is milk from any animal that has not been pasteurized (heated to a specific temperature for a set amount of time) to kill harmful germs that may be in it. Because these germs usually don’t change the look, taste, or smell of milk, pasteurization is the best way to make sure your milk is safe.

Questions and Answers about Raw Milk

Can raw milk hurt me or my family?

Yes. Raw milk can make you very sick or even kill you. That’s because it can contain harmful germs, such as Brucella, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella.

Drinking raw milk can lead to many days of diarrhea, stomach cramping, and vomiting. Less commonly, it may result in severe or even life-threatening illness, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, which can cause paralysis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can result in kidney failure, stroke, and even death.

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Find out how drinking raw milk affected three moms and their families. Watch videos >

Who has a greater chance of getting sick from drinking raw milk or eating products made from raw milk, such as cheese, ice cream, and yogurt?

Infants and young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems (such as people with cancer, an organ transplant, or HIV) have a greater chance of getting sick from drinking raw milk than healthy adults. However, healthy people of any age can get very sick or even die if they drink raw milk contaminated with harmful germs.

What can I do to lower my chances of getting sick from milk and milk products?

Choose pasteurized milk and milk products. Look for the word “pasteurized” on the label. If in doubt, don’t buy it!

Eat soft cheeses only if they are made from pasteurized milk. Soft cheeses include queso fresco, queso blanco, panela (queso panela), brie, Camembert, blue-veined, and feta.

Keep milk and milk products refrigerated at 40°F or colder, and throw away any expired milk or milk products to lower your chance of getting sick.

Infographic: Some germs linked to outbreaks

Harmful germs found in raw milk can make people sick. These germs include bacteria, parasites, and viruses, such as Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella.

Are raw or natural foods better than processed foods?

Many people believe that foods with little or no processing are better for their health. However, some types of processing are needed to protect our health. We make raw meat, poultry, and fish safe to eat by cooking them. We make milk safe by pasteurizing it—heating it just long enough to kill harmful germs. Most nutrients remain in milk after it is pasteurized.

What are good sources of beneficial bacteria?

If you’re thinking about drinking raw milk because you believe it is a good source of beneficial bacteria, you need to know that you may get sick from drinking it. Consider choosing pasteurized fermented foods, such as yogurt and kefir, which contain beneficial bacteria without the risk of illness linked to germs in raw milk.

Can I get sick from raw milk and raw milk products if the animals are healthy and clean or if the dairy is especially careful when collecting the milk?

Yes. Heathy animals may carry germs that can make people sick. Following good hygiene during milking can reduce the chance of contamination but does not eliminate it. Methods for safely collecting milk have improved over the years but they can’t guarantee the milk is safe. When milk is not pasteurized to kill germs that may have gotten into it while it was being collected, transported, stored or processed, it can make people sick.

My local farmer’s raw milk is organic, so isn’t it safe?

Raw milk is not guaranteed to be safe, even if it’s organic or comes from an organic, certified, or local farm or dairy. Only pasteurization can make milk safe. Many small farms and dairies, farmer’s markets, and supermarkets offer pasteurized organic milk and products made from it.

My dairy farmer performs laboratory tests for germs in raw milk, so isn’t it safe?

Even if no germs are found during testing, raw milk can still contain germs that can make you and your family sick. Tests do not always detect low levels of contamination, and germs can multiply and grow in milk between the time it’s collected and when you drink it. People have become very sick from drinking raw milk from farms that regularly tested their milk and whose owners said they were sure that their milk was safe.

Questions and Answers about Raw Milk-Related Outbreaks

How many outbreaks have been related to raw milk?

From 2007 through 2016, 32 states reported 144 outbreaks linked to raw milk. Reported outbreaks represent the tip of the iceberg. Most foodborne illnesses are not part of a recognized outbreak, and for every outbreak and every illness reported, many others occur.

Two children drinking milk

Infants and young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems have a greater chance of getting sick if they drink raw milk that contains harmful germs.

Where do most raw milk-related outbreaks happen?

Raw milk-related outbreaks are more common in states that allow the legal sale of raw milk for people to drink than in states that do not allow its sale.

Who is most affected by raw milk and raw milk product outbreaks?

Many raw milk and raw milk product outbreaks involve children. At least one child younger than 5 was involved in 46% of the raw milk and raw milk product outbreaks reported to CDC from 2007 through 2016. In these outbreaks, 19% of the illnesses caused by Salmonella and 15% caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (such as O157) were among children aged 1–4 years.

Protect yourself and your loved ones. Avoid raw milk – it’s just not worth the risk.

  • Page last reviewed: February 4, 2019
  • Page last updated: February 4, 2019
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