Tracking Threats Using Data
CDC gathers data on human infections, pathogens (germs), and reasons or risk factors that cause some people to get a resistant infection. CDC also works with domestic and international partners to strengthen information-sharing networks to fill data gaps and create ways to harmonize how data is reported across countries.
CDC uses several data sources to assess the scope of the problem and track antibiotic resistance. These systems complement each other to provide a comprehensive understanding of known and emerging antibiotic resistance threats. By knowing where and how changes in resistance are occurring, CDC can inform solutions—like containment and prevention, outbreak response, and drug and diagnostic development—to prevent spread and slow resistance. CDC sometimes uses external sources for data. For example, the 2019 AR Threats Report used electronic health data to assess the burden of antibiotic-resistant germs commonly associated with health care.
CDC submits collected data to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) surveillance system called Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Systemexternal icon (GLASS). GLASS provides a standardized approach to the collection, analysis and sharing of data on antimicrobial resistance at a global level. A component of GLASS called the Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance Reporting (GLASS-EAR) will notify the WHO when new resistance is found, which could influence how these new threats are tracked.
Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network), CDC
- The AR Lab Network provides nationwide lab capacity to rapidly detect antibiotic resistance in healthcare, food, and the community, and inform local responses to prevent spread and protect people
- It includes labs in 50 states, five cities, and Puerto Rico, including seven regional labs and the National Tuberculosis Molecular Surveillance Center
- AR Lab Network has a number of components, including Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), which monitors resistance trends in N. gonorrhoeae bacteria in the U.S.
- Other examples of pathogens (isolates, or pure samples of germs) tested include Acinetobacter, Candida, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Salmonella, and more
- Learn more: CDC’s AR Lab Network website
Emerging Infections Programs (EIP), CDC
- EIP sites conduct in-depth studies to improve surveillance, prevention, and control of emerging infectious diseases like antibiotic-resistant infections
- The EIP network collects and analyzes patient, healthcare facility, and lab data to track resistant infections across communities and healthcare facilities, identifying gaps and opportunities for prevention
- Learn more: CDC’s EIP website
National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS), CDC, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- NARMS tracks changes in the antimicrobial susceptibility of certain enteric (intestinal) bacteria found in ill people, retail meats, and food animals in the U.S.
- It helps protect public health by providing information about emerging bacterial resistance, the ways in which resistance spreads, and how resistant infections differ from infections that can be treated with antibiotics
- Learn more: CDC’s NARMS website
National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), CDC
- NHSN is the nation’s most widely used healthcare-associated infection tracking system, and includes information on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use
- It provides facilities, states, regions, and the nation with data needed to identify problem areas, measure progress of prevention efforts, and ultimately eliminate healthcare-associated infections
- Learn more: CDC’s NHSN website
National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS), CDC
- NTSS collects information on each newly reported case of tuberculosis (TB) disease in the U.S. to measure progress of TB control, prevention, and elimination efforts
- Learn more: CDC’s NTSS website
CDC Data Apps
- Antibiotic Resistance Investment Map
- Antibiotic Resistance & Patient Safety Portal
- NARMS Now: Human Data (food-borne safety data)
- Reference Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) Data
CDC Visual Maps
- View the U.S. map of Candida auris, an emerging fungus with some strains resistant to all three major classes of antifungal drugs, a form of resistance not seen before in other species of Candida