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Action Plan — Top-Priority

(All 13 items have top priority, regardless of their order in the list)


  • With partners, design and implement a national AR surveillance plan that defines national, regional, state, and local surveillance activities and the roles of clinical, reference, public health, and veterinary laboratories. The plan should be consistent with local and national surveillance methodology and infrastructure that currently exist or are being developed.
    (Action Item #2)
  • Develop and implement procedures for monitoring patterns of antimicrobial drug use in human medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, and consumer products.
    (Action Item #5)

Prevention and Control

  • Conduct a public health education campaign to promote appropriate antimicrobial use as a national health priority.
    (Action Item #25)
  • In collaboration with many partners, develop and facilitate the implementation of educational and behavioral interventions that will assist clinicians in appropriate antimicrobial prescribing.
    (Action Item #26)
  • Evaluate the effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness) of current and novel infection-control practices for healthcare and extended care settings and in the community. Promote adherence to practices proven to be effective.
    (Action Item #39)
  • In consultation with stakeholders, refine and implement the proposed FDA framework for approving new antimicrobial drugs for use in food-animal production and, when appropriate, for re-evaluating currently approved veterinary antimicrobial drugs.
    (Action Item #58)
  • Support demonstration projects to evaluate comprehensive strategies that use multiple interventions to promote appropriate drug use and reduce infection rates, in order to assess how interventions found effective in research studies can be applied routinely and most cost-effectively on a large scale.
    (Action Item #63)


  • Provide the research community genomics and other powerful technologies to identify targets in critical areas for the development of new rapid diagnostics methodologies, novel therapeutics, and interventions to prevent the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.
    (Action Item #70)
  • In consultation with academia and the private sector, identify and conduct human clinical studies addressing AR issues of public health significance that are unlikely to be studied in the private sector (e.g., novel therapies, new treatment regimens, and other products and practices).
    (Action Item #75)
  • Identify, develop, test, and evaluate new rapid diagnostic methods for human and veterinary uses with partners, including academia and the private sector. Such methods should be accurate, affordable, and easily implemented in routine clinical settings (e.g., tests for resistance genes, point-of-care diagnostics for patients with respiratory infections and syndromes, and diagnostics for drug resistance in microbial pathogens, including in nonculture specimens).
    (Action Item #76)
  • Encourage basic and clinical research in support of the development and appropriate use of vaccines in human and veterinary medicine in partnership with academia and the private sector.
    (Action Item #77)

Product Development

  • Create an Interagency AR Product Development Working Group to identify and publicize priority public health needs in human and animal medicine for new AR products (e.g., innovative drugs, targeted spectrum antibiotics, point-of-care diagnostics, vaccines and other biologics, anti-infective medical devices, and disinfectants).
    (Action Item #79)
  • Identify ways (e.g., financial and/or other incentives or investments) to promote the development and/or appropriate use of priority AR products, such as novel compounds and approaches, for human and veterinary medicine for which market incentives are inadequate.
    (Action Item #80)
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