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  1. Hofmann J, Cetron MS, Farley MM, et al. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:481-6.
  2. Panlilio AL, Culver DH, Gaynes RP, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. hospitals, 1975-1991. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1992;13:582-6.
  3. CDC. Four pediatric deaths from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997-1999. MMWR. 1999;48:707-10. (Also available in PDF format [PDF - 470 KB]
  4. Gupta K, Scholes D, Stamm WE. Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. JAMA. 1999;281:736-8.
  5. Glynn MK, Bopp C, Dewitt W, et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1333-8.
  6. Martone W. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why did it happen in the United States? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:539-45.
  7. Wiener J, Quinn JP, Bradford PA, et al. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 1999;281:517-23.
  8. CDC. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance, unpublished data 1999.
  9. Hiramatsu K, Hanaki H, Ino T, Yabuta K, Oguri T, Tenover FC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;40:135-136.
  10. Smith TL, Pearson ML, Wilcox KR, et al. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus . N Engl J Med. 1999;340:493-501.
  11. Pablos-Mendez A, Raviglione MC, Laszlo A, et al. Global surveillance for antituberculosis drug resistance, 1994-1997. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1641-9.
  12. Fox KK, Knapp JS, Holmes KK, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1998-1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. J Infect Dis 1997;175:1396-403.
  13. Wainberg MA, Friedland G. Public health implications of antiretroviral therapy and HIV drug resistance. JAMA 1998;279:1977-83.
  14. Rex JH, Rinaldi MG, Pfaller MA. Resistance of Candida species to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy 1995;39:1-8.
  15. White NJ. Drug resistance in malaria. Br Med Bull 1998;54:703-15.
  16. Adcock PM, Pastor P, Medley F, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two child care centers. J Infect Dis 1998;178:577-80.
  17. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Impacts of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, OTA-H-629, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995.
  18. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Forum on Emerging Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance: Issues and Options [Workshop Report], Washington, DC, 1998.
  19. American Society for Microbiology. Report of the ASM Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance, Washington, DC, 1995.
  20. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Report on Infectious Diseases 2000; Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance. WHO/CDS/2000.2 Geneva 2000.
  21. General Accounting Office, Antimicrobial Resistance: Data to assess public health threat from resistant bacteria are limited [PDF - 225 KB] [GAO/HEHS/NSIAD/RCED-99-132], Washington, DC, April 1999.
  22. General Accounting Office, Food Safety: The agricultural use of antibiotics and its implications for human health [PDF - 312 KB] [GAO/RCED-99-74], Washington, DC, April 1999.
  23. World Health Organization. Draft Global Strategy for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Available on the Internet at
  24. Centers for Disease Control. A national action plan to combat multidrug resistant tuberculosis. MMWR 1992;41 (RR-11).
  25. Department of Health and Human Services. Development of a Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Federal Register 1999;64:34558.
  26. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Federal Register 2000; 65:38832-3.
  27. American Society for Microbiology. Clean Hands Campaign. Available on the Internet at
  28. Partnership for Food Safety Education. Fight Bac! Available on the Internet at
  29. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Government Food Safety for Farm to Table: A National Food-Safety Initiative, A Report to the President, Washington, DC, May 1997.
  30. Food and Drug Administration. A Proposed Framework for Evaluating and Assuring the Human Safety of the Microbial Effects of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs Intended for Use in Food-producing Animals, Rockville, MD, February 1999.

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