References

1. Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(8):1323-1334.
2. Strawbridge LM, Lloyd JT, Meadow A, Riley GF, Howell BL. Use of Medicare’s Diabetes Self-Management Training Benefit. Health Educ Behav. 2015;42(4):530-538.
3. Strawbridge LM, Lloyd JT, Meadow A, Riley GF, Howell BL. One-Year Outcomes of Diabetes Self-Management Training Among Medicare Beneficiaries Newly Diagnosed With Diabetes. Med Care. 2017;55(4):391-397.
4. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/special.htm.
5. Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Phys Ther. 2008;88(11):1254-1264.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/statistics-report.html
7. Giovannucci E, Harlan DM, Archer MC, et al. Diabetes and Cancer: A consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(7):1674-1685. doi:10.2337/dc10-0666.
8. Takeda S., Morishita R. (2018) Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Yamagishi S. (eds) Diabetes and Aging-related Complications. Springer, Singapore.
9. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2018 Mar. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2017. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/early/2018/03/20/dci18-0007.full.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB]external icon
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Report Card 2017. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/library/diabetesreportcard2017-508.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 5 MB].
11. Rutledge SA, Masalovich S, Blacher RJ, Saunders MM. Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs in Nonmetropolitan Counties — United States, 2016. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66(No. SS-10):1–6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6610a1external icon
12. Chen LM, Farwell WR, Jha AK. Primary care visit duration and quality: does good care take longer? Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(20):1866-1872.
13. Beck J, Greenwood DA, Blanton L, et al. 2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(10):1409-1419.
14. American Association of Diabetes Educators. The Importance of Follow-up. https://www.diabeteseducator.org/practice/provider-resources/importance-of-follow-upexternal icon.
15. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General. Medicare Coverage of Non-Physician Practitioner Services. June 2001, OEI-02-00-00290.
16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and Diabetes Advocacy Alliance. Improving Diabetes Screening and Referrals to Prevention Programs. Presented at: Healthy People 2020 Spotlight on Health, 2017. https://www.healthypeople.gov/sites/default/files/HP2020%20Spotlight%20on%20Health%20Diabetes%20Webinar.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 5 MB]external icon
17. Utah Department of Health. Utah Diabetes Self-Management Education: A Guidance Map for Understanding Evidence-Based Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) Programs. 2017. http://choosehealth.utah.gov/documents/pdfs/diabetes/udoh_dsme_toolkit.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]external icon.
18. Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSMES) Technical Assistance Guide https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/programs/stateandlocal/resources/dsmes-technical-assistance-guide.html.
19. Peyrot M, Rubin RR, Funnell MM, Siminerio LM. Access to diabetes self-management education: results of national surveys of patients, educators, and physicians. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35(2):246-248, 252-256, 258-263.
20. Funnell MM, Brown TL, Childs BP, et al. National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care. 2012;35 Suppl 1:S101-108.
21. Meetoo D, Gopaul H. Empowerment: giving power to people with diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing 2005;9(1):28-32.
22. American Diabetes Association. Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Diabetes Care. 2015;38 Suppl:S20-30.
23. Shrader S, Kavanagh K, Thompson A. A diabetes self-management education class taught by pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012;76(1):13.
24. American Association of Diabetes Educators. AADE Strategic Plan 2013-2015. https://www.diabeteseducator.org/docs/default-source/legacy-docs/_resources/pdf/general/AADE_StrategicPlan_Final.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 8 MB]external icon.
25. Medicare Learning Network: MLN Matters. Guidelines for Payment of Diabetes Self-Management Training (DSMT). 2007; https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNMattersArticles/downloads/MM5433.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 97 KB]external icon.
26. Sepers CE, Jr., Fawcett SB, Lipman R, Schultz J, Colie-Akers V, Perez A. Measuring the Implementation and Effects of a Coordinated Care Model Featuring Diabetes Self-management Education Within Four Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Diabetes Educ. 2015;41(3):328-342.
27. Administration for Community Living. AoA Diabetes Self-Management Training Initiative. 2015; https://www.acl.gov/sites/default/files/programs/2016-11/AoA-DSMT-Toolkit-2015.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 642 KB]external icon.
28. Edelman D, McDuffie JR, Oddone E, Gierisch JM, Nagi A, Williams JW, Jr. Shared Medical Appointments for Chronic Medical Conditions: A Systematic Review. Washington (DC)2012.
29. Bronson DL, Maxwell RA. Shared medical appointments: increasing patient access without increasing physician hours. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71(5):369-374.
30. Rothe U, Muller G, Schwarz PE, et al. Evaluation of a diabetes management system based on practice guidelines, integrated care, and continuous quality management in a Federal State of Germany: a population-based approach to healthcare research. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(5):863-868.
31. Fitzner K, Moss G. Telehealth–an effective delivery method for diabetes self-management education? Popul Health Manag. 2013;16(3):169-177.
32. Davis RM, Hitch AD, Salaam MM, Herman WH, Zimmer-Galler IE, Mayer-Davis EJ. TeleHealth improves diabetes self-management in an underserved community: diabetes TeleCare. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8):1712-1717.
33. Fisher N, Ruppert J, Olveda J. Reach More Patients in Less Time the Telehealth Way. Paper presented at: AADE152015; New Orleans, LA.
34. Funnell MM, Brown TL, Childs BP, et al. National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care. 2010;33 Suppl 1:S89-96.
35. Joslin Diabetes Center. More Than Pill Dispensers: How Your Pharmacist Can Help Your Diabetes. 2012; http://blog.joslin.org/2012/04/more-than-pill-dispensers-how-your-pharmacist-can-help-your-diabetes/external icon.
36. Utah Department of Health EPICC Program. Community Health Workers. http://choosehealth.utah.gov/healthcare/community-health-workers.phpexternal icon.
37. American Association of Diabetes Educators. AADE Position Statement: Community Health Workers in Diabetes Management and Prevention. 2009; https://www.diabeteseducator.org/docs/default-source/legacy-docs/_resources/pdf/CommunityHealthWorkerPositionStatement2009.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 142 KB]external icon.
38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emerging Practices in Diabetes. Approaches to Increasing Access to and Participation in Diabetes Self-Management Education. 2016: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/programs/stateandlocal/emerging_practices-increasing_dsme.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 551 KB].
39. National Diabetes Education Program. Developing Community-Based Programs for People with Diabetes: An Introduction for Community-Based Organizations. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/pdfs/training-tech-assistance/cbo_training_full.pdf. pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB]
40. Dall TM, Yang W, Halder P, et al. The economic burden of elevated blood glucose levels in 2012: diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(12):3172-3179.
41. Burke SD, Sherr D, Lipman RD. Partnering with diabetes educators to improve patient outcomes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:45-53.
42. Sherr D, Lipman RD. The Diabetes Educator and the Diabetes Self-management Education Engagement: The 2015 National Practice Survey. Diabetes Educ. 2015;41(5):616-624.
43. Duncan I, Birkmeyer C, Coughlin S, Li QE, Sherr D, Boren S. Assessing the value of diabetes education. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35(5):752-760.
44. Duncan I, Ahmed T, Li QE, et al. Assessing the value of the diabetes educator. Diabetes Educ. 2011;37(5):638-657.
45. Boren SA, Fitzner KA, Panhalkar PS, Specker JE. Costs and Benefits Associated With Diabetes Education – A Review of the Literature. Diabetes Educator. 2009;35910;72-96. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0145721708326774 [PDF – 142 KB]external icon
46. Chrvala CA, Sherr D, Lipman RD. Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of the effect on glycemic control. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(6):926-943.
47. Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(7):1159-1171.
48. Steinsbekk A, Rygg LO, Lisulo M, Rise MB, Fretheim A. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:213.
49. Leatherman S, Berwick D, Iles D, et al. The business case for quality: case studies and an analysis. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003;22(2):17-30.
50. American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(4):1033-1046.
51. Healy SJ, Black D, Harris C, Lorenz A, Dungan KM. Inpatient diabetes education is associated with less frequent hospital readmission among patients with poor glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(10):2960-2967.
52. Robbins JM, Thatcher GE, Webb DA, Valdmanis VG. Nutritionist visits, diabetes classes, and hospitalization rates and charges: the Urban Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(4):655-660.
53. Brown HS, 3rd, Wilson KJ, Pagan JA, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a community health worker intervention for low-income Hispanic adults with diabetes. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012;9:E140.
54. Tshiananga JK, Kocher S, Weber C, Erny-Albrecht K, Berndt K, Neeser K. The effect of nurse-led diabetes self-management education on glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Educ. 2012;38(1):108-123.
55. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medicare Shared Savings Program Quality Measure Benchmarks for the 2018 and 2109 Reporting Years. December 2017. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/sharedsavingsprogram/Downloads/2018-and-2019-quality-benchmarks-guidance.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 677 KB]external icon.
56. American Association of Diabetes Educators. Tips for Reaching Prescribers. https://www.diabeteseducator.org/docs/default-source/legacy-docs/_resources/pdf/general/Tips_for_Reaching_Prescribers_Final.pdf pdf icon[PDF – 339 KB]external icon.
57. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. How an RDN Can Help with Diabetes. (01 November 2018). https://www.eatright.org/health/diseases-and-conditions/diabetes/how-an-rdn-can-help-with-diabetesexternal icon.
58. Rossi MC, Nicolucci A, Di Bartolo P, et al. Diabetes Interactive Diary: a new telemedicine system enabling flexible diet and insulin therapy while improving quality of life: an open-label, international, multicenter, randomized study. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):109-115.
59. Scavone G, Manto A, Pitocco D, et al. Effect of carbohydrate counting and medical nutritional therapy on glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic subjects: a pilot study. Diabet Med. 2010;27(4):477-479.
60. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854-865.
61. Coppell KJ, Kataoka M, Williams SM, Chisholm AW, Vorgers SM, Mann JI. Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment–Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;341:c3337.
62. Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, et al. Translating lifestyle intervention to practice in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(7):1570-1576.
63. Ziemer DC, Berkowitz KJ, Panayioto RM, et al. A simple meal plan emphasizing healthy food choices is as effective as an exchange-based meal plan for urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(6):1719-1724.
64. Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, et al. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37 Suppl 1:S120-143.
65. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):140-149.
66. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. MNT vs Nutrition Education. 2006; http://www.eatrightpro.org/resource/practice/getting-paid/who-pays-for-nutrition-services/mnt-vs-nutrition-educationexternal icon.
67. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. National Coverage Determination (NCD) for Medical Nutrition Therapy (180.1). https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/ncd-details.aspx?ncdid=252external icon.

Page last reviewed: March 13, 2018