Table: Epidemiologic risk factors
¶ = Categories that pertain particularly to healthcare personnel (HCP) .
|Epidemiologic risk factors
(Apply until 14 days after last potential exposure)
|Exposure category||Monitoring for MERS|
|¶ – Conducting or being present during a procedure likely to generate higher concentrations of respiratory aerosols (e.g., cough-generating procedures, bronchoscopy, sputum induction, intubation, extubation) on a patient with confirmed MERS without using the recommended PPE.||¶ – High||¶ – Active monitoring|
|Close contact with a person with confirmed MERS while the person was symptomatic (see definitions of close contact) without wearing appropriate PPE.||Some||Active monitoring|
|¶ – HCP with unprotected exposure (without PPE) to a MERS patient (not a high-risk exposure).||¶ –Some||¶ – Active monitoring|
|¶ – HCP without a known unprotected exposure in a facility, who are caring for a MERS patient in a facility where HCP transmission to HCP or another patient has occurred without an identified breach in infection control.||¶ – Some||¶ – Active monitoring|
|¶ – Laboratory processing of blood, serum, or respiratory samples from a person with MERS while not wearing appropriate PPE or without using standard biosafety precautions. For example performing any procedure (e.g. vortexing, centrifuging) with the potential to generate fine-particulate aerosols (particles with a diameter of 2.5 mm or less) outside a class II biosafety cabinet.||¶ – Low (but not zero)||¶ – Self-monitoring|
|¶ – Having provided healthcare while using the recommended PPE to a person with confirmed MERS while the person was symptomatic. This includes direct patient care or contact with respiratory secretions (e.g., clinical laboratory or housekeeping personnel).||¶ – Low (but not zero)||¶ – If engaged in direct patient care, active monitoring. If not engaged in direct patient care, self-monitoring.|
|Having traveled on an aircraft seated WITHIN 2 ROWS of a person with confirmed MERS who was symptomatic during travel, but having no exposures assessed as close contact. Examples of close contact include travel companions, assisting crew, assisting HCP.||Low (but not zero)||Self-monitoring|
|Having traveled on an aircraft seated MORE THAN 2 ROWS from a person with confirmed MERS who was symptomatic during travel and having no exposures assessed as close contact. Examples of close contact include, travel companions, assisting crew, assisting HCP.||No identifiable risk||None|
|Potential exposure that occurred more than 14 days prior.||No identifiable risk||None|
|Contact with a person with MERS before his or her symptoms began.||No identifiable risk||None|
|Transient interactions that do not meet the close contact definition, such as walking by a person with MERS.||No identifiable risk||None|
|¶ – HCP with no direct patient contact and no entry into active patient management areas.||¶ – No identifiable risk||¶ – None|
|¶ – Clinical laboratory personnel who use appropriate PPE and follow biosafety precautions in a laboratory setting while handling specimens containing MERS-CoV.||¶ – No identifiable risk||¶ – None|
*Countries considered in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring include: Bahrain; Iraq; Iran; Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syria; the United Arab Emirates (UAE); and Yemen.
**Criteria including exposure risks for the evaluation and testing of patients for MERS-CoV infection can be found in the CDC Guidance for Evaluating Persons Under Investigation for MERS.