Animals and COVID-19
- We do not know the exact source of the current outbreak of COVID-19, but we know that it originally came from an animal, likely a bat.
- Based on the available information to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
- We are still learning about this virus, but we know that it can spread from people to animals in some situations, especially during close contact.
- More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.
- People with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should avoid contact with animals, including pets, livestock, and wildlife.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some coronaviruses cause cold-like illnesses in people, while others cause illness in certain types of animals, such as cattle, camels, and bats. Some coronaviruses, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, infect only animals and do not infect people.
Risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people
Based on the available information to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to people. More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by SARS-CoV-2.
Some coronaviruses that infect animals can be spread to people and then spread between people, but this is rare. This is what happened with SARS-CoV-2, which likely originated in bats. Early reports of infections were linked to a live animal market in Wuhan, China, but the virus is now spreading from person to person.
Risk of people spreading SARS-CoV-2 to animals
People can spread SARS-CoV-2 to animals, especially during close contact.
There have been reports of animals infected with the virus worldwide. Most of these animals became infected after contact with people with COVID-19, including a small number of pet cats and dogs. We know that companion animals like cats and dogs, big cats in zoos or sanctuaries, gorillas in zoos, mink on farms, and a few other mammals can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, but we don’t yet know all of the animals that can get infected.
A small number of pet cats and dogs have been reported to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 in several countries, including the United States. One ferret was reported positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Slovenia. Several animals in zoos and sanctuaries have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including big cats (lions, tigers, pumas, cougars, snow leopards) and non-human primates (gorillas) after showing signs of illness. It is suspected that these animals became sick after being exposed to an animal caretaker with COVID-19. In many situations, this happened despite the staff wearing personal protective equipment and following COVID-19 precautions.
For information on how to protect pets and animals:
- If You Have Pets
- Companion Animals with COVID-19: Toolkit for Health Officials
- Veterinary Clinics: Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance
- Reducing Risk of Spreading COVID-19 between People and Wildlife
- Interim recommendations for intake of companion animals from households where humans with COVID-19 are presentexternal icon
Mink and SARS-CoV-2
SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in farmed mink worldwide. Currently, there is no evidence that mink are playing a significant role in the spread of COVID-19 to people.
SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in mink on farms in multiple countriesexternal icon.
In the United States, respiratory disease and increases in mink deaths have been seen on most affected mink farms. However, some infected mink might also appear healthy. Infected workers likely introduced SARS-CoV-2 to mink on the farms, and the virus then began to spread among the mink. Once the virus is introduced on a farm, spread can occur between mink, as well as from mink to other animals on the farm (dogs, cats). One wild mink found near an affected Utah farm was found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Currently, there is no evidence that mink are playing a significant role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to people. However, there is a possibility of mink spreading SARS-CoV-2 to people on mink farms. Mink to human spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Poland, and new data suggest it might have occurred in the United States.
- Investigations found that mink from a Michigan farm and a small number of people were infected with SARS-CoV-2 that contained unique mink-related mutations (changes in the virus’s genetic material). This suggests mink to human spread might have occurred.
- The animals on the farm have since tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 twice, and the infected people have since recovered.
- Finding these mutations in mink on the Michigan farm is not unexpected because they have been seen before in mink from farms in the Netherlands and Denmark and also in people linked to mink farms worldwide.
- Currently there is limited information available about the genetics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has infected people living in the communities near the mink farm. Thus, it is difficult to know with certainty whether the mink-related virus mutations originated in people or in mink on the farm.
- To confirm the spread of SARS-CoV-2 from mink to people, public health officials would need more information on the epidemiology and genetics of the virus in mink, mink farm workers, and the community around mink farms.
- These results highlight the importance of routinely studying the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 in susceptible animal populations like mink, as well as in people.
Guidance is available to protect worker and animal health, developed collaboratively by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), CDC, and state animal and public health partners using a One Health approach:
Prevent Introduction of SARS-CoV-2 on Mink Farms: Interim SARS-CoV-2 Guidance and Recommendations for Farmed Mink and Other Mustelidspdf iconexternal icon
Response and Containment Guidelines: Interim Guidance for Animal Health and Public Health Officials Managing Farmed Mink and other Farmed Mustelids with SARS-CoV-2pdf iconexternal icon
USDA maintains a listexternal iconexternal icon of all animals and mink farms in the United States with SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed by their National Veterinary Services Laboratories.
Research on animals and COVID-19
More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.
Many studies have been done to learn more about how this virus can affect different animals. These findings were based on a small number of animals, and do not show whether animals can spread infection to people.
Recent experimental research shows that many mammals, including cats, dogs, bank voles, ferrets, fruit bats, hamsters, mink, pigs, rabbits, racoon dogs, tree shrews, and white-tailed deer can be infected with the virus. Cats, ferrets, fruit bats, hamsters, racoon dogs, and white-tailed deer can also spread the infection to other animals of the same species in laboratory settings.
A number of studies have investigated non-human primates as models for human infection. Rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, baboons, grivets, and common marmosets can become infected with SARS-CoV-2 and become sick in a laboratory setting. There is some evidence suggesting that laboratory mice, which could not be infected with original strains of SARS-CoV-2, can be infected with new virus variants.
Chickens and ducks do not seem to become infected or spread the infection based on results from studies.
Since the beginning of the pandemic, CDC has been leading efforts to improve our understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 affects animals and how the virus might spread between people and animals. CDC has also worked to improve coordination of federal, state, and other One Health partners.
- CDC leads the One Health Federal Interagency COVID-19 Coordination (OH-FICC) Group, which brings together public health, animal health, and environmental health representatives from more than 20 federal agencies to collaborate and exchange information on the One Health aspects of COVID-19. For example, the group researches and develops guidance on the connection between people and pets, wildlife, zoo animals, and livestock; animal diagnostics and testing; and environmental health issues relevant to COVID-19.
- CDC leads the State-Federal One Health Update Call to bring local, state, tribal, and territorial partners together with OH-FICC members to exchange information, share timely updates, and address partner needs on the One Health aspects of COVID-19.
- CDC, USDA, state public health and animal health officials, and academic partners are working in some states to conduct active surveillance (proactive testing) of SARS-CoV-2 in pets, including cats, dogs, and other small mammals, that had contact with a person with COVID-19. Researchers test these animals for SARS-CoV-2 infection and to see whether they develop antibodies to the virus and perform genomic sequencing. This work is being done to help us better understand how common SARS-CoV-2 infection might be in pets, as well as if pets play a role in the spread of this virus.
- CDC deployed One Health teams to multiple states to support state and local departments of health and agriculture, federal partners, and others in conducting on-farm investigations into SARS-CoV-2 in people, mink, and other animals (domestic and wildlife). The teams collected samples from animals on the farms and from people working on the farms and in surrounding communities. CDC and USDA are testing and analyzing these samples to better understand how SARS-CoV-2 can spread among mink, other animals, and people, as well as genetic variations of the virus. These investigations are ongoing.
- Information on Bringing an Animal into the United States
- World Organisation for Animal Health: COVID-19 Events in Animalsexternal icon
- USDA: Confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Animals in the United Statesexternal icon
- USDA: Coronavirus Disease 2019external iconexternal icon
- FDA: Coronavirus Disease 2019external iconexternal icon
- Texas A&M Research Uncovers First Known COVID-19 UK Variant In Animalsexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in a Snow Leopard at a Kentucky Zooexternal icon
- USDA Confirms SARS-CoV-2 in Mink in Utahexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in Pet Dog in New Yorkexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in Two Pet Cats in New York
- USDA Statement on the Confirmation of COVID-19 Infection in a Tiger in New Yorkexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in Gorillas at a California Zooexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in a Cougar at a Wild Animal Exhibitor in Texasexternal icon
- Confirmation of COVID-19 in Otters at an Aquarium in Georgiaexternal icon