Names in bold indicate CDC Climate & Health Program authorship.


Crimmins TM, Vogt E, Brown CL, Dalan D, Manangan A, Robinson G, Song Y, Zhu K, Katz D. “Volunteer-contributed observations of flowering often correlate with airborne pollen concentrations.” International Journal of Biometeorology (2023): 1-10.

Joseph H, Mallen E, McLaughlin M, Grossman E, Holmes TJ, Locklear A, Powell E, Thie L, Uejio CK, Vacca K, Williams C, Bishop T, Jeffers C, Siegel H, Austin C. ”Evaluating public health strategies for climate adaptation: Challenges and opportunities from the climate ready states and cities initiative.” PLOS Climate, 2(3): 0000102.

Katzman JG, Balbus J, Herring D, Bole A, Buttke D, Schramm P., “Clinician education on climate change and health: virtual learning community models.”, The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 7, Issue 6, 2023.

Kelly, G., Idubor, O.I., Binney, S., Schramm, P., Mirabelli, M., Hsu, J. “The Impact of Climate Change on Asthma and Allergic-Immunologic Disease.” Curr Allergy Asthma Rep (2023).

Lappe, BL, Ebelt S, D’Souza R, Manangan A, Brown CL, Saha S, Harris D, Chang H, Sole A, Scovronick N. “Pollen and Asthma Morbidity in Atlanta: A 26-Year Time-Series Study.” Environment International (2023): 107998.

Li Z, Maji KJ, Hu Y, Vaidyanathan A, O’Neill SM, Odman MT, Russell AG. “An Analysis of Prescribed Fire Activities and Emissions in the Southeastern United States from 2013 to 2020.” Remote Sensing (2023), 15(11): 2725.

Lemon SC, Joseph HAWilliams SBrown C, Aytur S, Catalano K, Chacker S, Goins KV, Rudolph L, Whitehead S, Zimmerman S, Schramm P. “Reimagining the Role of Health Departments and Their Partners in Addressing Climate Change: Revising the Building Resilience against Climate Effects (BRACE) Framework.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(15): 6447.

Michael R, Mirabelli MC, Vaidyanathan A. “Public health applications of historical smoke forecasts: An evaluation of archived BlueSky data for the coterminous United States, 2015–2018.Computers and Geosciences 2023; 171.

Osborne TF, Veigulis ZP, Vaidyanathan A, Arreola DM, Schramm PJ. “Trends in heat related illness: Nationwide observational cohort at the US department of veteran affairs.” The Journal of Climate Change and Health, Volume 12, 2023, 100256, ISSN 2667-2782.

Pennington, A.F., Vaidyanathan, A., Ahmed, F.S., Manangan, A., Mirabelli, M.C., Sircar, K., Yip, F., D. Flanders. “Large-scale agricultural burning and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in the U.S. state of Kansas.” J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol (2023).

Sacks JD, Holder AL, Rappold AG, Vaidyanathan A. “At the Intersection: Protecting Public Health from Smoke while Addressing the US Wildfire Crisis.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (2023): Aug 14(ja).


Gillespie E, Schramm P, Hsu J. “U.S. public health response to climate change for allergists-immunologists.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 2022.

Katz, D., Vogt, E., Manangan, A., Brown, C. L., Dalan, D., Zhu, K., Song, Y., Crimmins, T. M.  et al. “Observations from the USA National Phenology Network can be leveraged to model airborne pollen.” Aerobiologia (2022).

Mallen E, Joseph HA, McLaughlin M, English DQ, Olmedo C, Roach M, Tirdea C, Vargo J, Wolff M, York E. Overcoming Barriers to Successful Climate and Health Adaptation Practice: Notes from the FieldInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(12):7169.

Mallen E, Roach M, Fox L, et al. Extreme Heat Exposure: Access and Barriers to Cooling Centers — Maricopa and Yuma Counties, Arizona, 2010–2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:781–785.

McElroy, S., Vaidyanathan, A. “Understanding Air Quality Changes after Implementation of Mitigation Measures during a Pandemic: A Scoping Review of Literature in the United States.” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 22, 220047 (2022).

Mirabelli MC, Vaidyanathan A, Pennington AF, Ye D, Trenga CA. “Wildfire smoke and symptoms affecting mental health among adults in the US state of Oregon.” Preventive Medicine (2022), 164: 107333.


Breysse P, Dolan K, Schramm P, Plescia M. “Approaching Climate Change: The Role of State and Territorial Health Agencies.Journal of Public Health Management and Practice : JPHMP. 2021 Nov-Dec 01;27(6):615-617.

Manangan A, Brown C, Saha S, Bell J, Hess J, Uejio C, Fineman S, Schramm P, “Long-term pollen trends and associations between pollen phenology and seasonal climate in Atlanta, Georgia (1992-2018)”, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 2021.

Saha S, Vaidyanathan A, Lo F, Brown C, Hess J. “Short term physician visits and medication prescriptions for allergic disease associated with seasonal tree, grass, and weed pollen exposure across the United States.” Environmental Health volume 20, Article number: 85 (2021)

Schramm, PJ, Brown, CL, Saha, S, Conlon, KC, Manangan, AP, Bell, JE, Hess, JJ. “A systematic review of the effects of temperature and precipitation on pollen concentrations and season timing, and implications for human health.International Journal of Biometeorology 2021.

Schramm PJ, Cordero A, Berman PP, McCoy T, Gaines C, Svendsen E, Malilay J, Yip, F, Sarisky, J, Allwood P, Breysse PN. “Building a comprehensive approach in CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health to address the health effects of climate change.” The Journal of Climate Change and Health4, p.100071.

Schramm PJ, Vaidyanathan A, Radhakrishnan L, Gates A, Hartnett K, Breysse P. “Heat-Related Emergency Department Visits During the Northwestern Heat Wave — United States, June 2021MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1020–1021.


Jones, HM, Quintana AV, Trtanj J, Balbus J, Schramm P, Saha S, Castranio T,  Di Liberto TE.  “Developing an Experimental Climate and Health Monitor and Outlook.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2020.

Joseph G, Schramm PJ, Vaidyanathan A, Breysse P, Goodwin B. “Evidence on the Use of Indoor Air Filtration as an Intervention for Wildfire Smoke Pollutant Exposure [PDF – 3.61 MB]”  BRACE Technical Report Series 2020.

Navarro K., Vaidyanathan A.  “Notes from the Field : Understanding Smoke Exposure in Communities and Fire Camps Affected by Wildfires: A Summary of CDC’s Response to Two Major Wildfires–California and Oregon, 2020.” MMWR 2020

Schramm PJ, Ahmed M, Siegel H, Donatuto J, Campbell L, Raab K, Svendsen E. “Climate Change and Health: Local Solutions to Local Challenges”  Current Environmental Health Reports 2020.

Schramm PJ, Al Janabi AL, Campbell LW, Donatuto JL, Gaughen SC. “How Indigenous Communities Are Adapting To Climate Change: Insights From The Climate-Ready Tribes Initiative.” Journal of Health Affairs 2020.

Shire J, Vaidyanathan A, Lackovic M, Bunn T. “Association between Work‐Related Hyperthermia Emergency Department Visits and Ambient Heat in Five Southeastern States, 2010‐2012—a Case‐Crossover Study.” GeoHealth 2020.

Vaidyanathan A, Malilay J, Schramm P, Saha S.Heat-Related Deaths — United States, 2004–2018.” MMWR 2020.


Diao M, Holloway T, Choi S, O’Neill SM, Al-Hamdan MZ, Van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Jin X, Fiore AM, Henze DK, Lacey F, Kinney PL, Freedman F, Larkin NK, Zou Y, Kelly JT, Vaidyanathan A.   “Methods, availability, and applications of PM2.5 exposure estimates derived from ground measurements, satellite, and atmospheric models.Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2019. Epub.

Hu Y, Ai HH, Odman MT, Vaidyanathan A, Russell AG. “Development of a WebGIS-Based Analysis Tool for Human Health Protection from the Impacts of Prescribed Fire Smoke in Southeastern USA.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019; 16: 1981.

Liu Y, Saha S, Hoppe BO, Convertino M. “Degrees and dollars – Health costs associated with suboptimal ambient temperature exposure.” Science of the Total Environment. 2019; 678: 702-711.

Stevens S, Schreck C, Saha S, Bell J, Kunkel K. “Precipitation and fatal motor vehicle crashes: continental analysis with high-resolution radar data.”  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2019: epub.

Vaidyanathan A, Saha S, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Gasparrini A, Abdurehman N, Jordan R, Hawkins M, Hess J, Elixhause A. “Assessment of extreme heat and hospitalizations to inform early warning systems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2019; 116 (12): 5420-5427.


Angel JC, Swanston BM, Boustead KC, Conlon KR, Hall JL, Jorns KE, Kunkel MC, Lemos B, Lofgren TA, Ontl J, Posey K, Stone G, Takle, Todey D. “Chapter 21: Midwest.” 2018. In Reidmiller DR, Avery CW, Easterling DR, Kunkel KE, Lewis KLM, Maycock TK, Stewart BC (eds.) Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC.

Carter LA, Terando K, Dow K, Hiers KE, Kunkel A, Lascurain D, Marcy M, Osland, Schramm P.. “Chapter 19: Southeast.” 2018. In Reidmiller DR, Avery CW, Easterling DR, Kunkel KE, Lewis KLM, Maycock TK, Stewart BC (eds.) Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC.

Ebi KL, Balbus JM, Luber G, Bole A, Crimmins A, Glass G, Saha S, Shimamoto MM, Trtanj J, White-Newsome JL “Chapter 14: Human Health.” 2018. In Reidmiller DR, Avery CW, Easterling DR, Kunkel KE, Lewis KLM, Maycock TK, Stewart BC (eds.) Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II.. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC.

Lay CR, Mills D, Belova, A, Sarofim MC, Kinney PL, Vaidyanathan, A, Saha, S. “Emergency department visits and ambient temperature: Evaluating the connection and projecting future outcomes.” GeoHealth, 2018: 2, 182–194.


Bell JE, Brown C, Conlon K, Herring S, Kunkel K, Lawrimore J, Luber G, Schrek C, Smith A, Uejio C. “Changes in extreme events and the potential impacts on human health.Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 2017: 265-287.

Coopersmith, EJ, Bell JE, Benedict K,  Shriber J,  McCotter O,. Cosh MH. “Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions.” GeoHealth, 2017: 1 (1): 51-63.

Heidari, L., Younger, M., Chandler, G., Gooch, J. Schramm, P. “Integrating Health Into Buildings of the Future.” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 2017: 139(1): 010802.

Moulton AD, Schramm PJ.  “Climate Change and Public Health Surveillance: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy.” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2017:  23(6), 618–626.


Balbus J, Crimmins A, Gamble JL, Easterling DR, Kunkel KE, Saha S, Sarofim MC. “Introduction: Climate Change and Human Health. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.”U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 2016.

Conlon KC, Kintziger KW, Jagger M, Stefanova L, Ueijo CK, Konrad C. “Working with climate projections to estimate disease burden: perspectives from public health.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016:13(8): 804.

Conlon K, Monaghan AJ, Hayden MH, Wilhelmi O. “ Potential impacts of future climatic and land use changes on intra-urban heat exposure in Houston, Texas.” PLoS One 2016:11:e148890.

Crimmins A, Balbus J, Gamble JL, Beard CB, Bell JE, Dodgen D, Eisen RJ, Fann N, Hawkins M, Herring SC, Jantarasami L, Mills DM, Saha S, Sarofim MC, Trtanj J, Ziska L, “Executive Summary. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 2016.

Gamble JL, Balbus J, Berger M, Bouye K, Campbell V, Chief K, Conlon K, Crimmins A,  Flanagan B,Gonzalez-Maddux C, Hallisey E, Hutchins S, Jantarasami L, Khoury S, Kiefer M, Kolling J, Lynn JK, Manangan A, McDonald M, Morello-Frosch R, Redsteer MH,  Sheffield P, Thigpen Tart K, Watson J, Whyte KP, Wolkin AF.  “Populations of Concern. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 2016.

Saha S, Schramm P, Nolan A, Hess J.  “Adverse weather conditions and fatal motor vehicle crashes in the United States, 1994–2012.” Environmental Health, 2016: 15(1): 104.

Sarofim MC, Saha S, Hawkins MD, Mills DM, Hess J, Horton R, Kinney P, Schwartz J, St. Juliana A. “Temperature-Related Death and Illness. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment.” U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 2016.

Vaidyanathan A, Kegler S, Saha S, Mulholland J. “A Statistical Framework to Evaluate Extreme Heat Event Definitions from a Health Perspective.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2016: 97, 1817–1830.


Lulla V., Stanforth A., Prudent N., Johnson D., Luber G.  “Modeling Vulnerable Urban Populations in the Global Context of a Changing Climate.” 2015. In: Ahn R., Burke T., McGahan A. (eds) Innovating for Healthy Urbanization. Springer, Boston, MA

Saha S, Brock JW, Vaidyanathan A, Easterling DR, Luber G. “Spatial variation in hyperthermia emergency department visits among those with employer-based insurance in the United States – a case-crossover analysis.” Environmental Health 2015: 14:20.

Uejio CK, Mak S, Manangan A, Luber G, Bartlett KH. “Climatic Influences on Cryptococcus gattii Populations, Vancouver Island, Canada, 2002-2004.” Emerging Infectious Disease 2015: 21(11):1989-96.


Berko J, Ingram D, Saha S, Parker J. “Deaths Attributed to Heat, Cold, and Other Weather Events in the United States, 2006–2010.” National Health Statistics Reports, Number 76. National Center for Health Statistics, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2014.

Carter LM, Jones JW, Berry L, Burkett V, Murley JF, Obeysekera J, Schramm PJ, Wear D. “Southeast and the Caribbean. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment,” 2014. In J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Hess JJ, Eidson M, Tlumak J, Raab K, Luber G. “An Evidence-Based Public Health Approach to Climate Change Adaptation.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014: 122(11): 1177–1186.

Hess JJ, Saha S, Luber G.Summertime Acute Heat Illness in US Emergency Departments from 2006-2010: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014: 122(11):1209-15.

Hess JJ, Schramm PJ, Luber G.Public Health and Climate Change Adaptation at the Federal Level: One Agency’s Response to Executive Order 13514.” American Journal of Public Health, 2014: 104 (3), 22-30.

Luber, G. “Climate Change and Human Health: NASA and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Collaboration.” Geocarto International, 2014: 29(1):17-18.

Luber G, Knowlton K, Balbus J, Frumkin H, Hayden M, Hess J, McGeehin M, Sheats N, Backer L, Beard CB, Ebi KL, Maibach E, Ostfeld RS, Wiedinmyer C, Zielinski-Gutiérrez E, Ziska L. “Human Health. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, 2014.

Manangan AP, Uejio CK, Saha S, Schramm PJ, Marinucci GD, Brown CL, Hess JJ, Luber G. “Assessing health vulnerability to climate change: A guide for health departments.” Climate and Health Technical Report Series, 2014.

Marinucci GD, Luber G, Uejio CK, Saha S, Hess JJ. “Building Resilience against Climate Effects—A Novel Framework to Facilitate Climate Readiness in Public Health Agencies.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014:11(6):6433-6458.

Schramm PJ, Uejio CK, Hess JJ, Marinucci GD, Luber G.Climate Models and the Use of Climate Projections: A Brief Overview for Health Departments.” Climate and Health Technical Report Series, 2014.


CDC. Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events. 2013.

Dhara VR, Schramm PJ, Luber G. “Climate Change and Infectious Diseases in India: Implications for Healthcare Providers.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2013: 138(6):847-52.

Haynes AK, MananganAP, Iwane MK, Sturm-Ramirez K, Homaira N, Brooks WA, Luby S,  Rahman M, Klena JD, Zhang Y, Yu H, Zhan F, Dueger E, Mansour AM, Azazzy N, McCracken JP, Bryan JP, Lopez MR, Burton DC, Bigogo G, Breiman RF, Feikin DR, Njenga K, Montgomery J, Cohen AL, Moyes J, Pretorius M, Cohen C, Venter M, Chittaganpitch M,  Thamthitiwat S, Sawatwong P; Baggett HC, Luber G, Gerber SI. “Respiratory Syncytial Virus Circulation in Seven Countries With Global Disease Detection Regional Center.” Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013: 208: S246-S254.

Hess JJ, Marinucci G, Schramm PJ, Manangan A, Luber G. “Management of Climate Change Adaptation at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.” 2013. In Climate Change and Global Public Health. Editors: Pinkerton K and Rom W. New York: Springer.

Schramm PJ, Blackmore GM, Crosson W, Emrich CT, Estes M, Goodman M, Lipp EK, Liu Y, Morris G, Stumpf RP, Thie L, Tomlinson MC. “Human Health and Climate Change in the Southeast USA.”  2013. In Ingram K, Dow K, Carter L, and J Anderson, eds., Climate of the Southeast United States: Variability, Change, Impacts, and Vulnerability. Washington DC: Island Press.


Azziz-Baumgartner E, Luber G, Conklin L, Tosteson TR, Granade HR, Dickey RW, Backer LC. “Assessing the Incidence of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning with Two Surveys Conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012: 120(4):526-9.

Hess, JJ, McDowell JZ, Luber G.Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012: 120(2):171-9.

Holdren J et al. “National Global Change Research Plan 2012-2021: A Strategic Plan for the US Global Change Research Program.” 2012.

Houghton, A., Prudent N, Scott JE, Wade R, Luber G.Climate Change-Related Vulnerabilities and Local Environmental Public Health Tracking through GEMSS: a web-based visualization tool.” Applied Geography, 2012: 33: 36–44.

Johnson, D, Stanforth A, Lulla V, Luber G. “Developing an applied extreme heat vulnerability index utilizing socioeconomic and environmental data.” Applied Geography, 2012: 35 (1–2): 23–31.

Lin S, Hsu WH, Van Zutphen AR, Saha S, Luber G, Hwang SA. “Excessive heat and respiratory hospitalizations in New York state: estimating current and future public health burden related to climate change.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012: 120(11), 1571.

Schramm PJ. National Climate Assessment Health Sector Workshop Report: Northwest Region. 29pp, Seattle, Washington, 2012.

Schramm PJ. National Climate Assessment Health Sector Workshop Report: Southeast Region. 32pp, Charleston, South Carolina, 2012.


Bush KF, Luber G, Rani Kotha S, Dhaliwal RS, Kapil V, Pascual M, Brown DG, Frumkin H, Dhiman RC, Hess J, Wilson ML, Balakrishnan K, Eisenberg J, Kaur T, Rood R, Batterman S, Joseph A, Gronlund CJ, Agrawal A, Hu H. “Impacts of Climate Change on Public Health in India: Future Research Directions.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011: 119(6): 765–770.

Luber G. “Confronting a Changing Climate: A Public Health Approach.” Worcester Medicine, 2011: 75(3): 14-15.


Ebi, K, Berry P, Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalan C, Guillemo J, Aparicio M, Bakir H, Kabir I, Kendrovski V, Luber G, Raingsey Prak P, Sharshenova A, Ugarte C. “Protecting Health from Climate Change: Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment.” 2010. Pan American Health Organization. Washington D.C.

Portier CJ, Thigpen Tart K, Carter SR, Dilworth CH, Grambsch AE, Gohlke J, Hess J, Howard SN, Luber G, Lutz JT, Maslak T, Prudent N, Radtke M, Rosenthal JP, Rowles T, Sandifer PA, Scheraga J, Schramm PJ, Strickman D, Trtanj JM, Whung P-Y. “A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2010: doi:10.1289/ehp.1002272.


CDC. “Recognizing, Preventing and Treating Heat-Related Illness: An e-learning course.” 2009.

Johnson DP, Wilson JS, Luber G. “Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data.” International Journal of Health Geographics. 2009: 8:57.

Luber G, Prudent N.Climate Change and Human Health.” Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 2009: Vol 120: 113-117.

Prudent N, Houghton A, Stewart J, Petersen A, Thompson R, Byrne M, Luber G.Addressing Climate Change and Local Public Health: The Austin Climate Protection Program and the CDC Working Group on Climate Change Collaboration.” Journal of Environmental Health, 2009: 71(8):18-9.


Frumkin H, Hess J, Luber G, Malilay J, McGeehin M. “Climate change: the public health response.” American Journal of Public Health, 2008: 98:435-445.

Frumkin H, Luber G. “Climate Change: A Public Health Framework.” Northwest Public Health, 2008: 25(2): 6-7.

Frumkin H, McMichael A, Hess J. “Climate Change and the Health of the Public.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008: 35 (5): 401-402.

Gamble JL, Ebi KL, Grambsch AE, Sussman FG, Wilbanks TJ. “Analysis of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.” 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Golden J, Hartz D, Brazel A, Luber G, Phelan P. “A biometeorology study of climate and heat-related morbidity in Phoenix from 2001 to 2006.” International Journal of Biometeorology, 2008: 52 (6): 471-480.

Hess J, Malilay J, Parkinson A. “Climate Change: The Importance of Place.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008. 35 (5): 468-478.

Luber G, McGeehin M. “Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008: 35 (5): 429-435.

Luber G, Poulssen M, Moy B, Engelgau M. ”The Health Sector.” 2008. In South Asia: Shared View on Development and Climate Change, World Bank, 119-128.

St. Louis M, Hess J. “Climate Change: Impacts on and Implications for Global Health.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008: 35 (5): 527-538.


Luber G, Hess J. “Climate change and human health in the United States.” Journal of Environmental Health. 2007: 70(5):43-44.