Choose Effective Policies and Programs

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The key concepts below can guide you in creating a balanced portfolio of community-based interventions as you choose effective policies and programs. Also, keep in mind that you will need to Evaluate Actions and the outcomes of these interventions.

When selecting policy and program interventions to address your CHI priorities, consider a combination of activities that address socioeconomic factors, the physical environment, health behaviors, and clinical care to maximize your impact.

Key Concepts

  • A coordinated plan of action and alignment, where partners may pursue different but complementary activities that are consistent with their strengths and capacities, is developed
  • A selection of evidence-informed interventions from databases that have a clear ratings system, and can match the unique populations and stakeholders to appropriately matched interventions, is identified
  • Activities and actions chosen for implementation include a mix of individual-based, environmental-change, and policy/systems-change interventions
  • Where evidence is lacking, select new and innovative solutions, combined with adequate resources for impact evaluations (see Evaluate Actions section)

Tools for Getting Started

Tools are listed below in an order roughly aligned with the order of the key concept(s) they support above.

For developing a plan of action and alignment:

For selecting evidence-informed interventions

  • Database of Interventions
    • This interactive database will help you create a balanced portfolio of evidence-based strategies focusing on four action areas for the greatest impact on community health: socioeconomic factors, physical environment, health behaviors, and clinical care. This database currently includes interventions that address determinants of health associated with greatest disease burden in the United States.

For choosing a mix of individual-based, environmental-change, and policy/systems-change interventions:

For evaluating new and innovative interventions:

Click here for additional tools related to the key concepts.

Relevant Excerpts from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Final Rule
The IRS Final Rule on Community Health Needs Assessments (CHNA) for Charitable Hospitals pdf iconexternal icon contains language related to select key concepts above. An excerpt of this language is provided below. To see the full regulation, click on the hyperlinked references below this paragraph.21

The “final regulations adopt the proposed provision allowing for joint implementation strategies.”22 “[S]uch collaboration is an important way to conserve resources, promote cross-system strategies, and yield better outcomes.”23 This “approach [also] avoids the need to create duplicative separate documents while still ensuring that information for each hospital facility is clearly presented.”24

“These needs may include, for example, the need to address financial and other barriers to accessing care, to prevent illness, to ensure adequate nutrition, or to address social, behavioral, and environmental factors that influence health in the community.”25

Note: The above statements do not constitute legal advice or regulatory guidance from CDC. Questions regarding the application of law to a specific circumstance or circumstances should be submitted to an attorney or other qualified legal professional.

21Additional Requirements for Charitable Hospitals; Community Health Needs Assessments for Charitable Hospitals; Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return, 79 Fed. Reg. 78,953 (December 31, 2014) (to be codified at 26 C.F.R. pts. 1, 53, and 602), available at IRS Final Rule on Community Health Needs Assessments (CHNA) for Charitable Hospitals pdf iconexternal icon .
Id. at 78,970.
25Id. at 79,002.