This is a predefined variable created using ICD-O-3 site, histology, and sex to define tobacco-related cancers.1
Considerations for Use
- Cancer registries do not routinely collect data on tobacco use, so the number of cancers associated with this risk factor cannot be determined definitively.2 3 4
- However, other sources of information can be used to obtain the proportion of cancers probably caused by the risk factor, known as the attributable fraction.5 The number of attributable cancers can be estimated by multiplying the attributable fraction by the number of associated cancers.
- For more information, please see the referenced publications and Predefined Variables for Risk Factor-Associated Cancers documentation.
- Please note that in official federal cancer statistics publications, CDC reports malignant (invasive) cancers except for bladder cancers (includes in situ and invasive cancers).
1U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.
2Henley SJ, Singh SD, King J, Wilson RJ, O’Neil ME, Ryerson AB. Invasive cancer incidence and survival—United States, 2013. MMWR 2017;66:69–75.
3Cogliano VJ1, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Wild CP. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers.external icon Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2011;103(24):1827–1839.
4World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 2007.
5Levine B. What does the population attributable fraction mean? Preventing Chronic Disease 2007;4(1):A14.