Source of standard: CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries
Source item name: Derived from NAACCR’s Primary Site, Histologic Type ICD-O-3, Sex, and Diagnostic Confirmation
This is a predefined variable created using ICD-O-3 site, histology, and sex to define human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers.1 2 3 4
Considerations for Use
- Cancer registries do not routinely collect data on HPV diagnoses, so the number of cancers associated with this risk factor cannot be determined definitively.5 6 7
- However, other sources of information can be used to obtain the proportion of cancers probably caused by the risk factor, known as the attributable fraction.8 The number of attributable cancers can be estimated by multiplying the attributable fraction by the number of associated cancers.
- For more information, please see the referenced publications and Predefined Variables for Risk Factor-Associated Cancers documentation.
- Please note that in official federal cancer statistics publications, CDC reports malignant (invasive) cancers except for bladder cancers (includes in situ and invasive cancers).
1Watson M, Saraiya M, Ahmed F, Cardinez CJ, Reichman ME, Weir HK, Richards TB. Using population-based cancer registry data to assess the burden of human papillomavirus-associated cancers in the United States: overview of methods.external icon Cancer 2008;113(10 Suppl):2841–2854.
2Saraiya M, Unger ER, Thompson TD, Lynch CF, Hernandez BY, Lyu CW, Steinau M, Watson M, Wilkinson EJ, Hopenhayn C, Copeland G, Cozen W, Peters ES, Huang Y, Saber MS, Altekruse S, Goodman MT; HPV Typing of Cancers Workgroup. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines.external icon Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015;107(6):djv086.
3International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 90: Human Papillomaviruses.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.
4Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson M, Markowitz LE, Thomas CC, Thompson TD, Razzaghi H, Saraiya M, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human papillomavirus–associated cancers—United States, 2008–2012. MMWR 2016;65(26):661–666.
6Henley SJ, Singh SD, King J, Wilson RJ, O’Neil ME, Ryerson AB. Invasive cancer incidence and survival—United States, 2013. MMWR 2017;66:69–75.
7Cogliano VJ1, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Wild CP. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers.external icon Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2011;103(24):1827–1839.
8World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 2007.
9Levine B. What does the population attributable fraction mean? Preventing Chronic Disease 2007;4(1):A14.