This is a predefined variable created using ICD-O-3 site, histology, and sex to define alcohol-related cancers.1 2
Considerations for Use
- Cancer registries do not routinely collect data on alcohol use, so the number of cancers associated with this risk factor cannot be determined definitively.3 4 5
- However, other sources of information can be used to obtain the proportion of cancers probably caused by the risk factor, known as the attributable fraction.6 The number of attributable cancers can be estimated by multiplying the attributable fraction by the number of associated cancers.
- For more information, please see the referenced publications and Predefined SEER*Stat Variables for Calculating the Number of Associated Cancers for Selected Risk Factors documentation.
- Please note that in official federal cancer statistics publications, CDC reports malignant (invasive) cancers except for bladder cancers (includes in situ and invasive cancers).
1International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Volume 96: Alcohol Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010.
2International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Volume 100E: Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions: Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012.
3Henley SJ, Singh SD, King J, Wilson RJ, O’Neil ME, Ryerson AB. Invasive cancer incidence and survival—United States, 2013. MMWR 2017;66:69–75.
4Cogliano VJ1, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Wild CP. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers.external icon Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2011;103(24):1827–1839.
5World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 2007.
6Levine B. What does the population attributable fraction mean? Preventing Chronic Disease 2007;4(1):A14.