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  1. Machlin S, Kashihara D. Health Care Expenditures for Non-melanoma Skin Cancer Among Adults, 2005–2008 (Average Annual). Statistical Brief 345. Rockville, Maryland: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.
  2. Jemal A, Saraiya M, Patel P, Cherala SS, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Kim J, Wiggins CL, Wingo PA. Recent trends in cutaneous melanoma incidence and death rates in the United States, 1992–2006. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2011;65(5 Suppl 1):S17–S25.
  3. Sivamani RK, Crane LA, Dellavalle RP. The benefits and risks of ultraviolet tanning and its alternatives: the role of prudent sun exposure. Dermatologic Clinics 2009;27(2):149–154.
  4. Wolpowitz D, Gilchrest BA. The vitamin D questions: how much do you need and how should you get it? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2006;54(2):301–317.
  5. Holick MF. The cutaneous photosynthesis of previtamin D3: a unique photoendocrine system. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1981;77(1):51–58.
  6. Zhang M, Song F, Hunter DJ, Qureshi AA, Han J. Tanning bed use is not associated with internal cancer risk: evidence from a large cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2013;22(12):2425–2429.
  7. Gerber B, Mathys P, Moser M, Bressoud D, Braun-Fahrlander C. Ultraviolet emission spectra of sunbeds. Photochemistry and Photobiology 2002;76(6):664–668.
  8. Hornung RL, Magee KH, Lee WJ, Hansen LA, Hsieh YC. Tanning facility use: are we exceeding Food and Drug Administration limits? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2003;49(4):655–661.
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  10. World Health Organization. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Solar and ultraviolet radiation. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 2012;55.
  11. Boniol M, Autier P, Boyle P, Gandini S. Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e4757.
  12. Wehner MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e5909.
  13. Wehner MR, Chren MM, Nameth D, Choudhry A, Gaskins M, Nead KT, Boscardin WJ, Linos E. International prevalence of indoor tanning: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatology 2014;150(4):390–400.
  14. Lucas RM, McMichael AJ, Armstrong BK, Smith WT. Estimating the global disease burden due to ultraviolet radiation exposure. International Journal of Epidemiology 2008;37(3):654–667.
  15. World Health Organization. Ultraviolet Radiation and the Intersun Programme: The Known Health Effects of UV Web site. Accessed April 28, 2014.
  16. Quatresooz P, Henry F, Paquet P, Pierard GE. Photoaging under recreational sunbeds. Skin Research & Technology 2011;17(3):309–313.
  17. Reimann V, Kramer U, Sugiri D, Schroeder P, Hoffmann B, Medve-Koenigs K, Jockel KH, Ranft U, Krutmann J. Sunbed use induces the photoaging-associated mitochondrial common deletion. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2008;128(5):1294–1297.
  18. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. General and plastic surgery devices: reclassification of ultraviolet lamps for tanning, henceforth to be known as sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended for use in sunlamp products. Federal Register 2014;79(3):31205–31214.
  19. National Conference of State Legislatures. Indoor Tanning Restrictions for Minors—A State-by-State Comparison Web site. Accessed April 28, 2014.
  20. Gosis B, Sampson BP, Seidenberg AB, Balk SJ, Gottlieb M, Geller AC. Comprehensive evaluation of indoor tanning regulations: a 50-state analysis, 2012. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2014;134(3):620–627.
  21. Pawlak MT, Bui M, Amir M, Burkhardt DL, Chen AK, Dellavalle RP. Legislation restricting access to indoor tanning throughout the world. Archives of Dermatology 2012;148(9):1006–1012.
  22. Sinclair C, Makin JK. Implications of lessons learned from tobacco control for tanning bed reform. Preventing Chronic Disease 2013;10:E28.
  23. Coups EJ, Phillips LA. Prevalence and Correlates of Indoor Tanning. In: Heckman CJ, Manne SL, editors. Shedding Light on Indoor Tanning. Springer Science+Business Media BV; 2012. pp. 33–67.
  24. Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Kawkins J, Harris WA, Lowry R, Olsen EO, McManus T, Chyen D, Whittle L, Taylor E, Demissie Z, Brener N, Thornton J, Moore J, Zaza S. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2013. Morbidity and MMWR Surveillance Summaries 2014;63(SS04):1–168.
  25. Guy GP Jr, Berkowitz Z, Watson M, Holman DM, Richardson LC. Indoor tanning among young non-Hispanic white females. JAMA Internal Medicine 2013;173(20):1920–1922.
  26. Mayer JA, Woodruff SI, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, Forster JL, Clapp EJ, Hoerster KD, Pinchon LC, Weeks JR, Belch GE, Weinstock MA, Gilmer T. Adolescents’ use of indoor tanning: a large-scale evaluation of psychosocial, environmental, and policy-level correlates. American Journal of Public Health 2011;101(5):930–938.
  27. Baker MK, Hillhouse JJ, Liu X. The effect of initial indoor tanning with mother on current tanning patterns. Archives of Dermatology 2010;146(12):1427–1428.
  28. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. For Consumers. Know the Risks of Indoor Tanning Web site. Accessed April 29, 2014.
  29. Federal Trade Commission. Indoor Tanning. Consumer Information Web site. Accessed April 29, 2014.
  30. Internal Revenue Service. Indoor tanning services; excise taxes. Federal Register 2013;78 FR 34874:34874–34879.
  31. Jain N, Rademaker A, Robinson JK. Implementation of the federal excise tax on indoor tanning services in Illinois. Archives of Dermatology 2012;148(1):122–124.
  32. Guy GP Jr, Berkowitz Z, Jones SE, Olsen EO, Miyamoto JN, Michael SL, Saraiya M. State indoor tanning laws and adolescent indoor tanning. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104(4):e69–e74.
  33. Watson M, Holman DM, Fox KA, Guy GP Jr, Seidenberg AB, Sampson BP, Sinclair C, Lazovich D. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2013;44(6):682–689.
  34. Balk SJ, Fisher DE, Geller AC. Teens and indoor tanning: a cancer prevention opportunity for pediatricians. Pediatrics 2013;131(4):772–785.
  35. Culley CA, Mayer JA, Eckhardt L, Busic AJ, Eichenfield LF, Sallis JF, Quintana PJ, Woodruff SI. Compliance with federal and state legislation by indoor tanning facilities in San Diego. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2001;44(1):53–60.
  36. Fleischer AB Jr, Lee WJ, Adams DP, Zanolli MD. Tanning facility compliance with state and federal regulations in North Carolina: a poor performance. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1993;28(2 Pt 1):212–217.
  37. Forster JL, Lazovich D, Hickle A, Sorensen G, Demierre MF. Compliance with restrictions on sale of indoor tanning sessions to youth in Minnesota and Massachusetts. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2006;55(6):962–967.
  38. Pichon LC, Mayer JA, Hoerster KD, Woodruff SI, Slymen DJ, Belch GE, Clapp EJ, Hurd AL, Forster JL, Weinstock MA. Youth access to artificial UV radiation exposure: practices of 3647 U.S. indoor tanning facilities. Archives of Dermatology 2009;145(9):997–1002.
  39. Grewal SK, Haas AF, Pletcher MJ, Resneck JS Jr. Compliance by California tanning facilities with the nation’s first statewide ban on use before the age of 18 years. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2013;69(6):883–889.
  40. Hester EJ, Heilig LF, D’Ambrosia R, Drake AL, Schilling LM, Dellavalle RP. Compliance with youth access regulations for indoor UV tanning. Archives of Dermatology 2005;141(8):959–962.
  41. World Health Organization. Artificial tanning sunbeds: risks and guidance. [PDF-594KB] Geneva, Switzerland. 2003.
  42. Mayer JA, Hoerster KD, Pichon LC, Rubio DA, Woodruff SI, Forster JL. Enforcement of state indoor tanning laws in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease 2008;5(4):A125.
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  44. Federal Trade Comission. In the Matter of Indoor Tanning Association, a Corporation Web site. FTC File Number 0823159. Accessed April 29, 2014.
  45. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce—Minority Staff. False and Misleading Health Information Provided to Teens by the Indoor Tanning Industry: Investigative Report. Accessed April 29, 2014.
  46. Greenman J, Jones DA. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2010;62(4):685.
  47. Mozaffarian D, Hemenway D, Ludwig DS. Curbing gun violence: lessons from public health successes. JAMA 2013;309(6):551–552.
  48. Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher EB. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, KV, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory,Research, and Practice. 4th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008. pp. 465–485.
  49. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention objectives for 2020: recommendations for the framework and format of Healthy People 2020. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
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  51. Holman DM, Fox KA, Glenn JD, Guy GP Jr, Watson M, Baker K, Cokkinides V, Gottlieb M, Lazovich D, Perna FM, Sampson BP, Seidenberg AB, Sinclair C, Geller AC. Strategies to reduce indoor tanning: current research gaps and future opportunities for prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2013;44(6):672–681.
  52. Hery C, Tryggvadottir L, Sigurdsson T, Olafsdottir E, Sigurgeirsson B, Jonasson JG, Olafsson JH, Boniol M, Byrnes GB, Dore JF, Autier P. A melanoma epidemic in Iceland: possible influence of sunbed use. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010;172(7):762–767.
  53. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer Web site. Accessed April 29, 2014.