African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) Campaign
African American women who get breast cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white women and are less likely to survive for 5 years after diagnosis.
CDC developed the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign, which used radio and print media to make more women aware of the importance of getting mammograms to find breast cancer early. The campaign also sought to increase use of CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) screening services among African American women aged 40 to 64. The campaign was piloted in Savannah and Macon, Georgia.
African American women who get breast cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white women1 2 and are less likely to survive for 5 years after diagnosis.3 Studies suggest that this disparity is due to African American women being diagnosed with breast cancer at a later stage,4 and receiving treatment later after diagnosis.56
The AAMM pilot campaign goals included—
- Increasing knowledge about breast cancer and mammography.
- Increasing awareness of the importance of mammograms for early detection of breast cancer.
- Increasing awareness of the NBCCEDP’s low- or no-cost mammogram services.
- Increasing the number of women who get a mammogram through the Breast Test and More program (NBCCEDP in Georgia) at their local health department.
The campaign featured public service announcements (PSAs) that consist of testimonials by breast cancer survivors in Savannah and Macon. The PSAs were broadcast on the following radio stations—
- WSOK 1230 AM
- WTYB 103.9 FM
- WDDO 1240 AM
- WFXM 107.1 FM
- WLZN 92.3 FM
- WQMJ 100.1 FM
The AAMM campaign distributed promotional print materials in Savannah, Georgia. The materials featured positive images of African American women aged 40 to 64 years and explained the importance of getting a mammogram. They were displayed in and around Savannah in retail stores, pharmacies, grocery stores, and the health department. In addition, they were given out at local community events widely attended by African American women, such as—
- The Black Heritage Festival
- The Chamber Biz Expo
- Entrepreneur Center’s Annual Business Event
- Annual Martin Luther King, Jr. Breakfast Celebration
This campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated jointly by CDC, the Georgia Department of Human Services, and the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service. These organizations share an interest in reducing the number of deaths from breast cancer among African American women. We hope this collective effort will yield greater results in increasing knowledge about breast cancer, mammography, early detection, and the availability of low- or no-cost screening at local health departments for eligible women. We would also like to thank the African American Health Information Resource Center at St. Joseph’s/Candler Hospital and the Savannah Chapter of Sisters Network for their support of AAMM activities in Savannah, Georgia.
For more information, please read the following scientific articles—
- Hall IJ, Johnson-Turbes A. Use of the Persuasive Health Message framework in the development of a community-based mammography promotion campaign. Cancer Causes and Control 2015.
- Hall IJ, Johnson-Turbes A, Berkowitz Z, Zavahir Y. The African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) campaign in Georgia: quantifying community response to a CDC pilot campaign. Cancer Causes and Control 2015.
- Leeks KD, Hall IJ, Johnson-Turbes CA, Kamalu N, Zavahir Y. Formative development of a culturally appropriate mammography screening campaign for low-income African-American women. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice 2012;5(3).
- Hall IJ, Rim SH, Johnson-Turbes CA, Vanderpool R, Kamalu NN. The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC breast cancer screening project.Journal of Women’s Health 2012;21(11):1107–1113.
- Hall IJ, Johnson-Turbes CA, Williams KN. The potential of black radio to disseminate health messages and reduce disparities. Preventing Chronic Disease 2010;7(4):A87.
1Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Clegg L, Horner MJ, Howlader N, Eisner MP, Reichman M, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, based on November 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER Web site, 2008.
2U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2014 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta (GA): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute; 2017. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/uscs.
3Jemal A, Clegg LX, Ward E, Ries LA, Wu X, Jamison PM, Wingo PA, Howe HL, Anderson RN, Edwards BK. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2001, with a special feature regarding survival. Cancer 2004;101(1):3–27.
4Smigal C, Jemal A, Ward E, Cokkinides V, Smith R, Howe HL, Thun M. Trends in breast cancer by race and ethnicity: update 2006. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2006;56(3):168–183.
5Joslyn SA. Racial differences in treatment and survival from early-stage breast carcinoma. Cancer 2002;95(8):1759–1766.
6Li CI. Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival in the United States. Ethnicity & Disease 2005;15(2 Suppl 2):S5–9.