Results: Breastfeeding Rates

National Immunization Survey (NIS)

Breastfeeding Among U.S. Children Born 2011–2018, CDC National Immunization Survey

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year1,2,3

Any Breastfeeding

Exclusive Breastfeeding

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage ± half 95% Confidence Interval)1,2, 3

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage ± half 95% Confidence Interval)1,2, 3
Birth Year
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ever Breastfed 79.2±1.2 80.0±1.2 81.1±1.1 82.5±1.1 83.2±1.0 83.8±1.2 84.1±1.0 83.9±0.9
At 6 months 49.4±1.5 51.4±1.5 51.8±1.4 55.3±1.4 57.6±1.4 57.3±1.6 58.3±1.4 56.7±1.2
At 12 months 26.7±1.3 29.2±1.4 30.7±1.3 33.7±1.3 35.9±1.3 36.2±1.5 35.3±1.4 35.0±1.1
Exclusively through 3 months 40.7±1.5 43.3±1.6 44.4±1.4 46.6±1.4 46.9±1.4 47.5±1.6 46.9±1.4 46.3±1.2
Exclusively through 6 months 18.8±1.2 21.9±1.4 22.3±1.1 24.9±1.3 24.9±1.2 25.4±1.3 25.6±1.2 25.8±1.0
  1. Data from 2011 to 2015 births were based on landline and cellular telephone sampling and data for 2016 births and onwards were based on cellular telephone sampling only. See Survey Methods for details and data prior to 2011 at Data, Trends, and Maps.
  2. Data from U.S. territories are excluded from national breastfeeding estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2030 targetsexternal icon on breastfeeding
  3. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk—NO solids, water, or other liquids.

Breastfeeding Rates by State1 and Sociodemographics

Breastfeeding Rates by State1 and Sociodemographics
“Any” and “Exclusive” Breastfeeding Rates Birth Year
-by State 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
-by Sociodemographics 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
  1. Because of changes in the sampling frame in 2011 and in 2018 (See survey methods for details) and small sample sizes, states should use caution when comparing prevalence estimates from year to year.

Percentage of Breastfed Children Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States1,2,3

Percentage of U.S. Breastfed Infants Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)1,2,3

Percentage of U.S. Breastfed Infants Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)1,2,3
Birth Year
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Before 2 days 19.4±1.3 19.1±1.3 17.1±1.2 15.5±1.0 17.2±1.2 16.9±1.3 19.2±1.3 19.4±1.2
Before 3 months 31.5±1.8 29.3±1.8 29.2±1.6 27.8±1.5 28.8±1.5 29.1±1.7 30.9±1.6 31.3±1.4
Before 6 months 37.9±2.0 35.4±2.1 34.9±1.8 33.8±1.7 34.5±1.7 33.5±1.9 36.2±1.8 35.8±1.5
  1. Data from 2011 to 2015 births were based on landline and cellular telephone sampling and data for 2016 births and onwards were based on cellular telephone sampling only. See Survey Methods for details and data prior to 2011 at Data, Trends, and Maps.
  2. Data from U.S. territories are excluded from national breastfeeding estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2030 targetsexternal icon on breastfeeding.
  3. Formula supplementation is defined as supplementation of breast milk with formula (with or without other supplementary liquids or solids) among infants breastfed before the age specified (2 days, 3 months, or 6 months). See survey methods for details.

Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2018, National Immunization Survey, United States1,2,3

Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2018, National Immunization Survey, United States
Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2018, National Immunization Survey, United States1,2,3
Child Age (months)
0 0.25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Any Breastfeeding 83.9 83.1 79.9 75.6 70.9 64.5 59.3 56.7 49.1 46.4 42.9 39.5 36.9 35
Exclusive Breastfeeding 63.3 57.8 51.9 46.3 39.4 31.2 25.8

Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age Among Children Born in 2018 (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)1,2

U.S. National Breastfeeding Rates, 2018 Births
Child Age Breastfeeding (n=21,428) Exclusive Breastfeeding (n=20,760)
At birth 83.9±0.9
7 days 83.1±0.9 63.3±1.2
14 days 82.4±1.0 61.0±1.2
21 days 80.9±1.0 58.9±1.2
28 days 80.2±1.0 58.2±1.2
1 month 79.9±1.0 57.8±1.2
2 months 75.6±1.0 51.9±1.2
3 months 70.9±1.1 46.3±1.2
4 months 64.5±1.2 39.4±1.2
5 months 59.3±1.2 31.2±1.1
6 months 56.7±1.2 25.8±1.0
7 months 49.1±1.2
8 months 46.4±1.2
9 months 42.9±1.2
10 months 39.5±1.2
11 months 36.9±1.1
12 months 35.0±1.1
18 months 14.8±0.8
  1. Data from U.S. territories are excluded from national breastfeeding estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2030 targetsexternal icon on breastfeeding.
  2. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk—NO solids, water, or other liquids.
  3. The data point for exclusive breastfeeding begins at 7 days of life.