Antibiotic Use in the United States, 2017: Progress and Opportunities


  1. Vital Signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infections. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012; 61(9): 157-62.
  2. Dantes R, Mu Y, Hicks LA, et al. Association Between Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Practices and Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection. Open Forum Infect Dis 2015; 2(3): ofv113.
  3. Kutty PK, Benoit SR, Woods CW, et al. Assessment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease surveillance definitions, North Carolina, 2005. Infection Control And Hospital Epidemiology: The Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America 2008; 29(3): 197-202.
  4. Lessa FC, Mu Y, Bamberg WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 2015; 372(9): 825-34.
  5. Shehab N, Lovegrove MC, Geller AI, Rose KO, Weidle NJ, Budnitz DS. US Emergency Department Visits for Outpatient Adverse Drug Events, 2013-2014. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2016; 316(20): 2115-25.
  6. Davey P, Brown E, Charani E, et al. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013; 4: CD003543.
  7. Fleming-Dutra KE, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, et al. Prevalence of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescriptions Among US Ambulatory Care Visits, 2010-2011. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 2016; 315(17): 1864-73.
  8. McCaig LFH, L.A.; Roberts, R.M.; Fairlie T.A Office-Related Antibiotic Prescribing for Persons Aged < 14 years—United States, 1993-1994 to 2007-2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2011; 60(34): 1153-6.
  9. Shapiro DJ, Hicks LA, Pavia AT, Hersh AL. Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014; 69(1): 234-40.
  10. Gonzales R, Malone DC, Maselli JH, Sande MA. Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 33(6): 757-62.
  11. Hersh AL, Fleming-Dutra KE, Shapiro DJ, Hyun DY, Hicks LA, Outpatient Antibiotic Use Target- Setting W. Frequency of First-line Antibiotic Selection Among US Ambulatory Care Visits for Otitis Media, Sinusitis, and Pharyngitis. JAMA Internal Medicine 2016; 176(12): 1870-2.
  12. Nicolle LE, Bentley DW, Garibaldi R, Neuhaus EG, Smith PW. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities. SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Infection Control And Hospital Epidemiology 2000; 21(8): 537-45.
  13. Lim CJ, Kong DC, Stuart RL. Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in the residential care setting: current perspectives. Clin Interv Aging 2014; 9: 165-77.
  14. Thompson ND, LaPlace L, Epstein L, et al. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Use and Opportunities to Improve Prescribing Practices in U.S. Nursing Homes. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2016; 17(12): 1151-3.
  15. Baggs J, Fridkin SK, Pollack LA, Srinivasan A, Jernigan JA. Estimating National Trends in Inpatient Antibiotic Use Among US Hospitals From 2006 to 2012. JAMA Internal Medicine 2016; 176(11):1639-48.
  16. Hecker MT, Aron DC, Patel NP, Lehmann MK, Donskey CJ. Unnecessary use of antimicrobials in hospitalized patients: current patterns of misuse with an emphasis on the antianaerobic spectrum of activity. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003; 163(8): 972-8.
  17. Fridkin S, Baggs J, Fagan R, et al. Vital signs: improving antibiotic use among hospitalized patients. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014; 63(9): 194-200.