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Evidence Supporting the Core Elements

Changing prescribing behaviors can be difficult, but there are proven evidence-based methods to optimize antibiotic therapy for individuals while minimizing harms to both the patient and the community. Multifaceted interventions using active provider education appear to have the greatest benefit, and most studies combine a variety of interventions.

Healthcare professionals can optimize antibiotic use in outpatient settings such as primary care and emergency rooms. Although many interventions are included here, this is not a comprehensive list. Evaluation of effective outpatient interventions is ongoing, and local barriers to changing outpatient prescribing behaviors should always be assessed.

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