Transgender people face multiple obstacles that may affect their ability to stay healthy and put them at risk for getting or transmitting HIV. The Transforming Health: Patient-Centered HIV Prevention and Care website contains information and materials for health care providers, whole-care teams, social service providers, and transgender people, with the goal of reducing new HIV infections and improving the health of transgender people who are living with HIV. Although content focuses on transgender women, many of the tools and information can be used to deliver patient-centered care for all transgender patients. Through the use of resource kit materials, health care providers can deliver patient-centered HIV care, increase the number of transgender people who get an HIV test and practice prevention strategies, and increase the number of HIV-positive transgender people who get and stay in care.
Stories From Transgender Women
Across CDC’s Act Against AIDS campaigns, transgender people have shared their experiences to help raise awareness, fight stigma, encourage HIV prevention and testing, and promote the importance of getting and staying in care.
Transgender is used here as an umbrella term to describe people who have a gender identity that is different from their sex listed on their birth certificate. Gender identity is on a spectrum. It is important to keep in mind that although some transgender people prefer the binary classification of men or women, many reject it. Instead, they may have other identities, such as non-binary, gender expansive, genderqueer, or trans-feminine/trans-masculine. These terms emphasize a broader view of gender and may provide a more nuanced understanding of what it means to be a transgender person.
A note regarding HIV research published in academic journals: An important consideration in research with transgender people is the challenge to accurately classify transgender women for surveillance/research purposes. Not all jurisdictions collect data on gender identity that include transgender people, and some researchers may use older methods that can misclassify transgender women as men who have sex with men. This can also happen as some transgender people may not identify themselves as transgender in health care settings due to fear of discrimination or previous negative experiences. This mix of limitations can result in over- or under-estimating the number of transgender people. As such, it is important to consider methodologies when interpreting data and surveillance findings. As the field is developing newer and more precise ways to identify transgender identity for research and surveillance purposes, it is important to consider methodological approaches, particularly for studies that include both men who have sex with men and transgender women. The most accurate method uses a two-step process, including two questions: “What is your current gender?” AND “What sex were you listed as at birth?” The large majority of studies cited in this document use a two-step process, however one is a meta-analysis and likely includes studies with a one-step process to determine gender identity. For more information about using a two-step process, please refer to the section Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.
1 James SE, Herman JL, Rankin S, et al. The report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/USTS-Full-Report-FINAL.PDF. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality; 2016.
2 Clark H, Babu AS, Wiewel EW, Opoku J, Crepaz N. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014. AIDS Behav (2017) 21:2774–2783.
3 Becasen JS, Denard CL, Mullins MM, Higa DH, Sipe TA. Estimating the prevalence of HIV and sexual behaviors among the US transgender population: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 2006–2017. AmJ Public Health 2018. e1-e8.
- Page last reviewed: July 17, 2018
- Page last updated: August 6, 2018
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