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HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs & Tuberculosis

HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) cause substantial illness and death in the U.S. at considerable cost to the healthcare system. The lifetime healthcare costs for Americans who are infected each year may total more than $19 billion for STDs and HIV alone. More than 20 million STDs and tens of thousands of HIV, hepatitis C, and TB cases occur each year. CDC focuses on high-impact prevention to make sure actions are directed where most needed to reduce infections, prevent illness, decrease disparities, and save lives.

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About 1 in 4 new HIV infections occurs in people ages 15 – 24 years.

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A CDC analysis shows that Hepatitis C testing and medical care and treatment for people born 1945 – 1965 could prevent more than 320,000 deaths.

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Almost two thirds of new chlamydia infections occur in people aged 15 to 24 years.

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Up to 13 million people in the United States are infected with the bacteria that cause TB. Without treatment, they are at risk for developing active TB disease.

Key Accomplishments 2015

  • Reported that HIV diagnoses declined by 9% during 2010 – 2014, attributed in part to increased testing, treatment, and prevention efforts.
  • Used genotyping to identify 14 large TB outbreaks in the United States TB sickens nearly 10,000 people in the U.S. every year.
  • Released new Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines in June, which were viewed or downloaded 350,000 times in the first six weeks.
  • Issued an annual state-by-state progress report for HIV impact indicators that showed 87% of Americans knew their HIV status in 2012. Five states reached the national goal of 90% awareness.
  • Helped continue the decline since 1991 in the percentage of female high school students who ever had sexual intercourse — from 51% to 46%.

A male lab technician working in the lab

At the Crossroads of Injection Drug Use: HIV and Hepatitis C

When an unusual spike in HIV infections occurred in a small rural town of 4,200 in Indiana, a public health emergency was quickly declared. This spike triggered an investigation by the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), and CDC was asked to help them determine the source and extent of the outbreak and to respond rapidly with disease control measures.

More than 90 staff from CDC worked with Indiana colleagues to control the outbreak of HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections. CDC data found almost 100% of cases were linked to injection drug use of the prescription opioid oxymorphone and sharing drug equipment such as syringes.

CDC and ISDH worked to trace contacts, analyze epidemiologic data, give technical assistance on testing and treatment, and research what was contributing to the outbreak. By the end of the investigation, 188 people were diagnosed with HIV, and most of them were co-infected with Hepatitis C. CDC and its partners worked together to ensure those infected received treatment not only for HIV and HCV, but also for drug use. CDC continues to work on the long-term capacity needed to help prevent future infections and respond quickly if they do occur.

Drugs on a table

Injecting drugs prepared from opioid prescription painkillers is on the rise and linked to other health threats.


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