ABCs Report: Group A Streptococcus, 2012

January 28, 2014: Content on this page kept for historical reasons.

Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs): Emerging Infections Program Network

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Surveillance Note

Missing race (n=150) data were multiply imputed using sequential regression imputation methods.

ABCs Areas

California (3 county San Francisco Bay area); Colorado (5 county Denver area); Connecticut; Georgia (20 county Atlanta area); Maryland (6 county Baltimore area); Minnesota; New Mexico; New York (15 county Rochester and Albany areas); Oregon (3 county Portland area); Tennessee (20 urban counties)

ABCs Population

The surveillance areas represent 32,777,740 persons.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics bridged‑race vintage 2012 postcensal file

ABCs Case Definition

Invasive group A streptococcal disease: isolation of group A Streptococcus from a normally sterile site or from a wound culture accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a resident of a surveillance area in 2012.

ABCs Methodology

ABCs personnel routinely contacted all microbiology laboratories serving acute care hospitals in their area to identify cases. Standardized case report forms that include information on demographic characteristics, clinical syndrome, and outcome of illness were completed for each identified case. Strains were emm typed at CDC. Regular laboratory audits assessed completeness of active surveillance and detected additional cases.

All rates of invasive group A streptococcal disease were calculated using population estimates for 2012. For national estimates of cases, race‑ and age‑specific rates of disease were applied from the aggregate surveillance area to the age and racial distribution of the 2012 U.S. population. Cases with missing data, excluding ethnicity, were multiply imputed using the sequential regression imputation method.

Reported ABCs Profiles

Reported ABCs Profiles
Race No. (Rate*)
White 798 (3.2)
Black 207 (3.9)
Other 112 (4.0)

* Cases per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

Reported ABCs Profiles by ethnicity
Ethnicity No. (Rate*)
Hispanic 117 (2.7)
Non‑Hispanic 667
Unknown 333

* Cases per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

Reported ABCs Profiles by age
Age (years) Cases
No. (Rate*)
Deaths
No. (Rate*)
< 1 22 (5.4) 2 (0.49)
1 13 (3.1) 0 (0.00)
2‑4 27 (2.2) 0 (0.00)
5‑17 42 (0.8) 2 (0.04)
18‑34 157 (2.0) 3 (0.04)
35‑49 230 (3.4) 14 (0.21)
50‑64 290 (4.5) 36 (0.56)
≥ 65 336 (8.1) 59 (1.42)
Total 1,117 (3.4) 116 (0.35)

* Cases or deaths per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

Reported ABCs Profiles by area
ABCs Area* Most common emm types % of area isolates
California 1, 92, 82, 89, 12, 28, 87 70.2
Colorado 1, 12, 28, 2, 118, 11, 89, 6 78.6
Georgia 89, 1, 4, 77, 11, 12, 28 71.0
Maryland 1, 89, 77, 28, 12, 3, 87 65.4
Minnesota 59, 1, 28, 4, 89, 12, 2 74.1
New Mexico 89, 82, 12, 118, 87, 1, 28, 6, 75 77.3
New York 89, 12, 118, 28, 1, 77, 75 73.3
Oregon 92, 89, 1, 59, 3 75.5
Tennessee 89, 1, 12, 3, 118, 87, 4 77.5
Total 1, 89, 12, 28, 118, 59 54.7

* Connecticut contributed cases but no isolates.
Requires a minimum of 3 or more isolates and ≥ 5% of isolates typed

Reported ABCs Profiles by syndrome
Syndrome No. (%)
Cellulitis 447 (40.0)
Necrotizing fasciitis 75 (6.7)
Pneumonia 157 (14.1)
Primary bacteremia 257 (23.0)
Streptococcal toxic shock 40 (3.6)

Note: Some cases had more than one syndrome.

Potentially preventable invasive group A streptococcal disease

During 2012, 1 case (ages 70 years) of invasive GAS disease was detected in patients with varicella.

National Estimates of Invasive Disease

Cases: 10,700 (3.4/100,000)
Deaths: 1,100 (0.35/100,000)

Citation

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2012.

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