Publications: Streptococcus pneumoniae

2000 to Present:

  1. Link-Gelles R, Westreich D, Aiello AE, et al. Generalisability of vaccine effectiveness estimates: An analysis of cases included in a postlicensure evaluation of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USAExternal. BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017715.
  2. Chochua S, Metcalf BJ, Li Z, et al. Emergent invasive serotype 35B pneumococci in the United States during ongoing surveillance (2015–2016) and identification of an expanding serotype switch lineage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017. In Press.
  3. Warren JL, Pingali SC, Weinberger DM. Spatial variability in the persistence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-targeted pneumococcal serotypes among adults. Epidemiology. 2017;28(1):119–26.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae,  2016.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2015.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance, Emerging Infections Program Network, Trends by serotype group — Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1998–2015.
  7. Link-Gelles R, Westreich D, Aiello AE, et al. Bias with respect to socioeconomic status: A closer look at zip code matching in a pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness study. SSM-Population Health. 2016;2:587–94.
  8. Metcalf BJ, Chochua S, Gertz RE Jr, et al. Using whole genome sequencing to identify resistance determinants and predict antimicrobial resistance phenotypes for year 2015 invasive pneumococcal disease isolates recovered in the United States. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(12):1002 e1–1002 e8.
  9. Kim L, McGee L, Tomczyk S, Beall B. Biological and epidemiological features of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in pre- and post-conjugate vaccine eras: A United States perspective. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2016;29(3):525–52.
  10. Li Y, Metcalf BJ, Chochua S, et al. Penicillin-binding protein transpeptidase signatures for tracking and predicting β-lactam resistance levels in Streptococcus pneumoniae. mBio. 2016;7(3):e00765–16.
  11. Nichols MC, Bareta J, Coyle A, Landen M. Using hospital inpatient discharge data to supplement active surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease: Is extract worth the exertion? Public Health Rep. 2016;131(3):404–10.
  12. de St Maurice A, Schaffner W, Griffin MR, Halasa N, Grijalva CG. Persistent gender disparities in invasive pneumococcal diseases in the conjugate era. J Infect Dis. 2016;214(5):792–7.
  13. Moore MR, Link-Gelles R, Schaffner W, et al. Effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the USA: A matched case-control study. Lancet Resp Med. 2016;4(5):399–406.
  14. Metcalf BJ, Gertz RE Jr, Gladstone RA, et al. Strain features and distributions in pneumococci from children with invasive disease before and after 13-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in the USA. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(1);60.
  15. Moore MR, Whitney CG. Use of pneumococcal disease epidemiology to set policy and prevent disease during 20 years of the Emerging Infections Program. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(9):1551–6.
  16. Kobayashi M, Bennett NM, Gierke R, et al. Intervals between PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(34);944–7.
  17. Hawkins PA, Chochua S, Jackson D, Beall B, McGee L. Mobile elements and chromosomal changes associated with MLS resistance phenotypes of invasive pneumococci recovered in the United States. Microb Drug Resist. 2015;21(2):121-9.
  18. Moore MR, Link-Gelles R, Schaffner W, et al. Effect of use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children on invasive pneumococcal disease in children and adults in the USA: Analysis of multisite, population-based surveillance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:301-9.
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2014 [1 page].
  20. Croucher NJ, Hanage WP, Harris SR, et al. Variable recombination dynamics during the emergence, transmission and ‘disarming’ of a multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clone. BMC Biol. 2014;12:49.
  21. Croucher NJ, Chewapreecha C, Hanage WP, et al. Evidence for soft selective sweeps in the evolution of pneumococcal multidrug resistance and vaccine escape. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6(7):1589-602.
  22. Dong W, Chochua S, McGee L, Jackson D, Klugman KP, Vidal JE. Mutations within the rplD gene of linezolid-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(4):2459-62.
  23. Park IH, Geno KA, Sherwood LK, Nahm MH, Beall B. Population-based analysis of invasive nontypeable pneumococci reveals that most have defective capsule synthesis genes. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97825.
  24. Reynolds CA, Finkelstein JA, Ray GT, Moore MR, Huang SS. Attributable healthcare utilization and cost of pneumonia due to drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: A cost analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2014;3:16.
  25. Spicer JO, Thomas S, Holst A, Baughman W, Farley MM. Socioeconomic and racial disparities of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33(2):158-64.
  26. Tomczyk S, Bennett NM, Stoecker C, et al. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged ≥65 years: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(27):822-25.
  27. Wortham JM, Zell E, Pondo T, et al. Racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, 1998-2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(9):1250-7.
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2013Cdc-pdf.
  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among children aged 6-18 years with immunocompromising conditions: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62(25):521-24.
  30. Cho BH, Stoecker C, Link-Gelles R, Moore MR. Cost-effectiveness of administering 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in addition to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine to adults with immunocompromising conditions. 2013;31(50):6011-21.
  31. Dallas SD, McGee L, Limbago B, et al. Development of doxycycline MIC and disk diffusion interpretive breakpoints and revision of tetracycline breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(6):1798-802.
  32. Feikin DR, Kagucia EW, Loo JD, et al. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: A pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites. PLoS Med. 2013;10(9):e1001517.
  33. Fleming-Dutra KE, Taylor T, Link-Gelles R, et al. Effect of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic on invasive pneumococcal pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2013;207(7):1135-43.
  34. Link-Gelles R, Taylor T, Moore MR; for the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. Forecasting invasive pneumococcal disease trends after the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States, 2010-2020. 2013;31(22):2572-7.
  35. Link-Gelles R, Thomas A, Lynfield R, et al. Geographic and temporal trends in antimicrobial nonsusceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the post-vaccine era in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2013;208(8):1266-73.
  36. Payne AB, Link-Gelles R, Azonobi I, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease among children with and without sickle cell disease in the United States, 1998-2009. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(12):1308–12.
  37. Stoecker C, Hampton LM, Link-Gelles R, Messonnier ML, Zhou F, Moore MR. Cost-effectiveness of using 2 vs 3 primary doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2):e324-32.
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2012Cdc-pdf[1 page].
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Licensure of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults aged 50 years and older. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(21):394-95.
  40. Cohen AL, Taylor T, Farley MM, et al. As assessment of the screening method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness: The case of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States. PLoS One. 2012:7(8):e41785.
  41. De Serres G, Pilishvili T, Link-Gelles R, et al. Use of surveillance date to estimate the effectiveness of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in children less than 5 years of age over a 9-year period. Vaccine. 2012;30(27):4067-72.
  42. Golubchik T, Brueggemann AB, Street T, et al. Pneumococcal genome sequencing tracks a vaccine escape variant formed through a multi-fragment recombination event. Nature genetics. 2012;44:352-5.
  43. Hampton LM, Farley MM, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Reingold A, Harrison LH, Lynfield R, Bennett NM, Petit S, Gershman K, Baumbach J, Beall B, Jorgensen J, Glennen A, Zell ER, Moore M. Prevention of antibiotic-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae with conjugate vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2012;205(3):401-11.
  44. Hampton LM, Zell ER, Schrag S, Cohen AL. Sentinel versus population-based surveillance of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90(8):568-77.
  45. Muhammad RD, Oza-Frank R, Zell E, et al. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among high-risk adults since introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;56(5):e59-67.
  46. Nelson GE, Gershman KA, Swerdlow DL, Beall BW, Moore MR. Invasive pneumococcal disease and pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):208-16.
  47. Wroe PC, Finkelstein JA, Ray GT, et al. Aging population and future burden of pneumococcal pneumonia in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1589-92.
  48. Beall BW, Gertz RE, Hulkower RL, Whitney CG, Moore MR, Bruegeemann AB. Shifting genetic structure of invasive serotype 19A pneumococci in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(10):1360-8.
  49. Calix JJ, Oliver MB, Sherwood LK, Beall BW, Hollingshead SK, Nahm MH. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A isolates contain diverse mutations to wcjE that result in variable expression of serotype 9V-specific epitope. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(10):1585-95.
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2011Cdc-pdf[1 page].
  51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Invasive pneumococcal disease and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coverage among children aged ≤59 months – Selected U.S. regions, 2010-2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(43):1477-81.
  52. Costa MA, Huang SS, Moore M, Kulldorff M, Finkelstein JA. New approaches to estimating national rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174(2):234-42.
  53. Hampton LM, Farley MM, Schaffner W, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae with conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2012;205(3):401-11.
  54. Hicks LA, Chien YW, Taylor TH Jr, Haber M, Klugman KP, on behalf of the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) Team. Outpatient antibiotic prescribing and nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1996-2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:631-9.
  55. Lingappa JR, Dumitrescu L, Zimmer SM, et al. Identifying host genetic risk factors in the context of public health surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23413.
  56. Petit S, Altier H, Marquez C, Mandour M. Invasive pneumococcal disease, Connecticut, 1998-2009. Connecticut Epidemiologist. 2011;31(4):9-10.
  57. Rosen JB, Thomas AR, Lexau CA, et al. Geographic variation in invasive pneumococcal disease following pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(2):137-43.
  58. Srinivasan V, du Plessis M, Beall BW, McGee L. Quadriplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (lytA, mef, erm, pbp2b(wt)) for pneumococcal detection and assessment of antibiotic susceptibility. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;71(4):453-6.
  59. Soto K, Petit S, Hadler JL. Changing disparities in invasive pneumococcal disease by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, 1998-2008. Public Health Reports. 2011;126(Supp 3):81-88.
  60. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2010.
  61. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Invasive pneumococcal disease in young children before licensure of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine – United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(10):253-7.
  62. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Licensure of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and recommendations for use among children – Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(9):258-61.
  63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children — Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(RR-11).
  64. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(34):1102-6.
  65. Cohen AL, Harrison LH, Farley MM, et al. Prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults in the era of childhood pneumococcal immunization. AIDS. 2010;24(14):2253-62.
  66. Gertz RE, Zhongya L, Pimenta FC, Jackson D, Carvalho MG, Beall BW. Increased penicillin-nonsusceptibility of non-vaccine serotype (other than 19A and 6A) invasive pneumococci in post 7-valent conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(5):770-5.
  67. Park SY, Van Beneden CA, Pilishvili T, et al. When pneumococcal conjugate vaccines do not work: A case series of invasive infections among vaccinated children in the United States. J Pediatr. 2010;156:478-83.
  68. Pilishvili T, Zell ER, Farley MM, et al. Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the era of conjugate vaccine use. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e9-e17.
  69. Pilishivili T, Lexau C, Farley MM, et al. Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(1):32-41.
  70. Poehling KA, Sims L, Snively BM, et al. Sickle cell trait, hemoglobin C trait and invasive pneumococcal disease. Epidemiology. 2010;21(3):340-6.
  71. Walter ND, Taylor TH, Shay DK, et al. Influenza circulation and the burden of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia during a non-pandemic period in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(2):175-83.
  72. Carvalho Mda G, Pimenta FC, Gertz RE Jr, et al. PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(3):554-9.
  73. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2009.
  74. Hsu HE, Shutt KA, Moore MR, et al. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in the United States, 1998-2005. N Engl J Med. 2009:360(3):244-56.
  75. McGee L, Biek D, Ge Y, et al. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline against cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53(2):552-6.
  76. Pimenta FC, Gertz RE Jr, Roundtree A, et al. Rarely occurring 19A-like cps locus from a serotype 19F pneumococcal isolate indicates continued need of serology-based quality control for PCR-based serotype determinations. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(7):2353-4.
  77. Ray GT, Pelton SI, Klugman KP, Strutton DR, Moore MR. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: An update after 7 years of use in the United States. Vaccine. 2009;27(47):6483-94.
  78. Walter ND, Taylor TH, Dowell SF, Mathis S, Moore ME. Holiday spikes in pneumococcal disease among older adults due to pediatric serotypes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(26):2584-5.
  79. Adamkiewicz TV, Silk B, Howgate J, et al. Effectiveness of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with sickle cell disease in the first decade of life. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):562-9.
  80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2008.
  81. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Effects of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae – United States, 2006-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(50):1353-5.
  82. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Invasive pneumococcal disease in children 5 years after conjugate vaccine introduction – Eight states, 1998-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(6):144-8.
  83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal PCR-based serotyping. Updated Oct. 17, 2008.
  84. Moore MR, Gertz RE, Barkocy-Gallagher GA, et al. Population snapshot of emergeent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the United States, 2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(7):1016-27.
  85. Park IH, Moore MR, Treanor JJ, et al. Differential effects of pneumococcal vaccines against serotypes 6A and 6C. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(12):1818-22.
  86. Yu J, Carvalho Mda G, Beall B, Nahm MH. A rapid pneumococcal serotyping system based on monoclonal antibodies and PCR. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57(Pt 2):171-8.
  87. Albrich WC, Baughman W, Schmotzer B, Farley MM. Changing characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta after introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1569-76.
  88. Brueggemann AB, Pai R, Crook DW, Beall B. Vaccine escape recombinants after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3(11):e168.
  89. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae. 2007.
  90. Hicks LA, Harrison LH, Flannery B, et al. Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998-2004. J Infect Dis. 2007;196(9):1346-54.
  91. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae. 2006.
  92. Barzilay EJ, O’Brien KL, Kwok YS, et al. Could a single dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children be effective? Modeling the optimal age of vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24(7):904-13.
  93. Beall B, McEllistrem MC, Gertz RE, et al. Pre and post vaccine (1999, 2001, 2002) clonal compositions of invasive pneumococcal serotypes in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(3):999-1017.
  94. Flannery B, Heffernan RT, Harrison LH, et al. Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults living in the era of childhood pneumococcal immunization. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:1-9.
  95. Greene CM, Kyaw MH, Ray SM, et al. Preventability of invasive pneumococcal disease and assessment of current polysaccharide vaccine recommendations for adults: United States, 2001-2003. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2006;43:141-50.
  96. Kyaw MH, Greene CM, Schaffner W, et al. Adults with invasive pneumococcal disease: Missed opportunities for vaccination. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:286-92.
  97. Kyaw MH, Lynfield R, Schaffner W, et al. Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Eng J Med. 2006;354(14):1455-63.
  98. Mahon BE, Hsu K, Karumuri S, Kaplan SL, Mason EO, Pelton SI. Effectiveness of abbreviated and delayed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing regimens. Vaccine. 2006;24:2514-20.
  99. Pai R, Gertz RE, Beall B. Sequential multiplex PCR approach for determining capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(1):124-31.
  100. Pletz M, Shergill A, McGee L, et al. Prevalence of first-step mutants among levofloxacin-susceptible invasive isolates on Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1561-3.
  101. Poehling KA, Talbot TR, Griffin MR, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease among infants before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. JAMA. 2006;295(14):1668-74.
  102. Ray GT, Whitney CG, Fireman BH, Ciruryla V, Black SB. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: Evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25(6):494-501.
  103. Whitney CG, Pilishvili T, Farley MM, et al. Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: A matched case-control study. Lancet. 2006;368(9546):1495-502.
  104. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2005.
  105. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Direct and indirect effects of routine vaccination of children with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, United States, 1998-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54(36):893-7.
  106. Feikin DR, Klugman KP, Facklam RR, et al. Increased prevalence of pediatric pneumococcal serotypes in elderly adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(4):481-7.
  107. Heffernan RT, Barrett NL, Gallagher KM, et al. Declining incidence of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections among persons with AIDS in an era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, 1995-2000. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(12):2038-45.
  108. Kyaw MH, Rose CE Jr, Fry AM, et al. The influence of chronic illnesses on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(3):377-86.
  109. Lexau CA, Lynfield R, Danila R, et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. JAMA. 2005;294(16):2043-51.
  110. Lipsitch M, Whitney CG, Zell E, Kaijalainen T, Dagan R, Malley R. Are anticapsular antibodies the primary mechanism of protection against invasive pneumococcal disease? PLoS Med. 2005;2(1):e15.
  111. McEllistrem MC, Adams JM, Shutt K, et al. Erythromycin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in children, 1999-2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(6):969-72.
  112. Pai R, Gertz RE, Whitney CG, Beall B. Clonal association between Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 23A, circulating within the United States, and an internationally dispersed clone of serotype 23F. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(11):5440-4.
  113. Pai R, Moore MR, Pilishvili T, et al. Post-vaccine genetic structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A from children in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(11):1988-95.
  114. Pai R, Limor J, Beall B. Use of pyrosequencing to differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6A and 6B. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(9):4820-2.
  115. Pettigrew MM, Fennie KP. Genomic subtraction followed by dot blot screening of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical and carriage isolates identifies genetic differences associated with strains that cause otitis media. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2805-11.
  116. Pletz MW, McGee L, Beall B, Whitney CG, Klugman KP. Interspecies recombination in type II topoisomerase genes is not a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(2):779-80.
  117. Stephens DS, Zughaier SM, Whitney CG, et al. Incidence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: Population-based assessment. Lancet. 2005;365:855-63.
  118. Talbot TR, Hartert TV, Mitchel E, et al. Asthma is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2082-90.
  119. Wolter N, Smith AM, Farrell DJ, et al. Novel mechanism of resistance to oxazolidinones, macrolides, and chloramphenicol in ribosomal protein L4 of the pneumococcus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(8):3554-7.
  120. Yu J, Lin J, Benjamin WH Jr, Waites KB, Lee CH, Nahm MH. Rapid multiplex assay for serotyping pneumococci with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:156-62.
  121. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2004.
  122. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Effect of New Susceptibility Breakpoints on Reporting of Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae — United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53(07):152-4.
  123. Flannery B, Schrag S, Bennett NM, et al. Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae JAMA. 2004;291(18):2197-203.
  124. Jorgensen JH, Crawford SA, McElmeel ML, Whitney CG. Comparative activities of Cethromycin and Telithromycin against recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:605-7.
  125. Jorgensen JH, Crawford SA, McElmeel ML, Whitney CG. Detection of resistance to Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin in Streptococcus pneumoniae with the VITEK 2 instrument. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5928-30.
  126. Klugman KP. Vaccination: A novel approach to reduce antibiotic resistance. Editorial commentary. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(5):649.
  127. Mavroidi A, Godoy D, Aanensen DM, Robinsom DA, Hollingshead SK, Spratt BG. Evolutionary genetics of the capsular locus of serogroup 6 pneumococci. J Bacteriol. 2004; 186(24):8181-92.
  128. McEllistrem MC, Noller AC, Visweswaran S, Adams JM, Harrison LH. Serotype 14 variants of the France 9V-3 clone from Baltimore, Maryland, can be differentiated by the cps B gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:250-6.
  129. Pletz MW, McGee L, Jorgensen J, et al. Levofloxacin-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: Evidence for clonal spread and the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48(9):3491-7.
  130. Schrag SJ, McGee L, Whitney CG, et al. Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae with very-high-level resistance to penicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3016-23.
  131. Talbot TR, Poehling KA, Hartert TV, et al. Reduction in high rates of antibiotic-nonsusceptible invasive pneumococcal disease in Tennessee after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Infec Dis. 2004;39(5):641-8.
  132. Talbot TR, Poehling KA, Hartert TV, et al. Elimination of racial differences in invasive pneumococcal disease in young children after introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:726-31.
  133. Adamkiewicz TV, Sarnaik S, Buchanan GR, et al. Invasive pneumococcal infections in children with sickle cell disease in the era of penicillin prophylaxis, antibiotic resistance, and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination. J Pediatr. 2003;143(4):438-44.
  134. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2003.
  135. Dowell SF, Whitney CG, Wright C, Rose CE, Schuchat A. Seasonal patterns of invasive pneumococcal disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(5):573-9.
  136. Fry AM, Facklam RR, Whitney CG, Plikaytis BD, Schuchat A. Multistate evaluation of invasive pneumococcal diseases in adults with HIV infection: Serotype and antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(5):643-52.
  137. Gertz RE, McEllistrem MC, Boxrud DJ, et al. Clonal distribution of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children and selected adults in the United States prior to 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(9):4194-216.
  138. King MD, Whitney CG, Parekh FM, Farley MM. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease: A population-based assessment. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1029-36.
  139. Kupronis BA, Richards JC, Whitney CG, Team ABCS. Invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults residing in long-term care facilities and in the community. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(11):1520-5.
  140. McCormick AW, Whitney CG, Farley MM, et al. Geographic diversity and temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. Nat Med. 2003;9(4):424-30.
  141. Restrepo MI, Velez JA, Mcelmeel ML, Whitney CG, Jorgensen JH. Activity of daptomycin against recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(9):2974-7.
  142. Sisk JE, Whang W, Butler JC, Sneller VP, Whitney CG. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease among people 50 through 64 years of age: Role of co morbid conditions and race. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(12):960-8.
  143. Thomas DM, Ray SM, Morton FJ, et al. Patient education strategies to improve pneumococcal vaccination rates: A randomized trial. J Invest Med. 2003;51(3):141-8.
  144. Van Beneden CA, Lexau C, Baughman W, et al. Aggregated antibiograms and monitoring of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(9):1089-95.
  145. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al. Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. New Engl J Med. 2003;348(18):1737-46.
  146. Albanese BA, Roche JC, Pass M, Whitney CG, McEllistrem MC, Harrison LH. Geographic, demographic, and seasonal differences in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Baltimore. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(1):15-21.
  147. Beall B, McEllistrem MC, Gertz RE Jr, et al. Emergence of a novel penicillin resistant clone of serotype 35B Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:118-22
  148. Braum SE, Crawford SA, McEmeel ML, Whitney CG, Jorgensen JH. Comparative activities of the oxazolidinone AZD2563 and linzolid against selected recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46(9):3094-5.
  149. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2002.
  150. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessment of susceptibility testing practices for Streptococcus pneumoniae – United States, February 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51(18):392-4.
  151. Fry AM, Zell ER, Schuchat A, Butler JC, Whitney CG. Comparing potential benefits of new pneumococcal vaccines with the current polysaccharide vaccine in the elderly. Vaccine. 2002;21:303-11.
  152. McEllistrem MC, Mendlelsohn AB, Elliott JA, Whitney CG, Albanese BA, Harrison LH. Distribution of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal clones in the Baltimore metropolitan area and variables associated with drug resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34(5):704-7
  153. McEllistrem MC, Mendelsohn AB, Pass MA, et al. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1364-8.
  154. Morita JY, Zell ER, Danila R, et al. Association between antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates and burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in the community. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:420-7.
  155. Schrag SJ, Zell E, Schuchat A, Whitney CG. Evaluation of sentinel surveillance for drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8(5):496-502.
  156. Shelvin JD, Summers-Bean C, Thomas D, Whitney CG, Todd D, Ray SM. A symptomatic approach for increasing pneumococcal vaccination rates at an inner-city hospital. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(2):92-7.
  157. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2001.
  158. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones — United States, 1995-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001;50(37):800-4.
  159. Ehresmann KR, Ramesh A, Como-Sabetti K, Peterson DC, Whitney CG, Moore KA. Factors associated with self-reported pneumococcal immunization among adults 65 years of age or older in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Prev Med. 2001;32(5):409-15.
  160. Hyde TB, Gay K, Stephens DS, et al. Macrolide resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae JAMA. 2001;286(15):1857-62.
  161. Moroney JF, Fiore AE, Harrison LH, et al. Clinical outcomes of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the era of antibiotic resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:797-805.
  162. Robinson K, Baughman W, Rothrock G, et al. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the U.S., 1995-1998 – Opportunities for prevention in the conjugate vaccine era. JAMA. 2001;285:1729-35.
  163. Beall B, Gherardi G, Facklam R, Hollingshead S. Pneumococcal psp A sequence types of prevalent multi-resistant strains in the United States and of internationally disseminated pneumococcal clones. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3663-9.
  164. Breiman RF, Keller DW, Phelan M, et al. Evaluation of effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine for HIV-infected patients. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2633-8.
  165. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2000.
  166. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing pneumococcal disease among infants and young children: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000:49(No. RR-9):1-35.
  167. Feikin DR, Schuchat A, Kolczak M, et al. Mortality from invasive pneumococcal pneumonia in the era of antibiotic resistance, 1995-1997. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:223-9.
  168. Fiore AE, Moroney JF, Farley MM, et al. Clinical outcomes of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the era of antibiotic resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:71-7.
  169. Gay K, Baughman W, Miller Y, et al. The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolide antimicrobial agents: A 6-year population-based assessment. J Infect Dis. 2000;182(5):1417-24.
  170. Gherardi G, Whitney CG, Facklam RR, Beall B. Major related sets of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in the United States as determined by PFGE and pbp1a-pbp2b-pbp2x-dhf restriction profiles. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:216-29.
  171. Harrison LH, Dwyer DM, Billmann L, Kolczak MS, Schuchat A, and the Maryland Emerging Infections Program. Invasive pneumococcal infection in Baltimore: Implications for immunization policy. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(1):89-94.
  172. Heffelfinger JD, Dowell SF, Jorgensen JH, et al. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in the era of pneumococcal resistance: A report from the drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae therapeutic working group. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1399-1408.
  173. Jorgensen JH, Weigel LM, Swenson JM, Whitney CG, Ferraro MJ, Tenover FC. Activities of clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against recent clinical isolates of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2962-8.
  174. McEllistrem MC, Pass M, Elliott JA, Whitney CG, Harrison LH. Clonal groups of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Baltimore, Maryland: A population-based, molecular epidemiologic study. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(12):4367-72.
  175. McEllistrem MC, Stout JE, Harrison LH. Simplified protocol for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:351-3.
  176. Metlay JP, Hofmann J, Cetron MS, et al. Impact of penicillin susceptibility on medical outcomes for adult patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:520-8.
  177. Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Farley MM, et al. Cigarette smoking and invasive pneumococcal disease. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:681-9.
  178. Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Gelling L, Kool JL, Reingold AL, Vugia DJ. Epidemiologic relation between HIV and invasive pneumococcal disease in San Francisco County, California. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:182-90.
  179. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al. Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1917-24.

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 1995-1999:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1999.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Geographic variation in penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae – Selected sites, United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:656-61.
  • Jacobson T, Thomas D, Morton F, Offutt G, Shevlin J, Ray S. Use of a low-literacy patient education tool to enhance pneumococcal vaccination rates: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;282:646-50.
  • Levine OS, Farley M, Harrison LH, et al. Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in children: A population-based case-control study in North America. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):e28.
  • Beall B, Facklam RR, Jackson DM, Starling HH. Rapid screening of penicillin-susceptibility in systemic pneumococcal isolates by restriction enzyme profiling of the php 2B J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2359-62.
  • Butler JC, Dowell SF, Breiman RF. Epidemiology of emerging pneumococcal drug resistance: Implications for treatment and prevention. Vaccine. 1998;16:1693-7.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1998.
  • Chen FM, Breiman RF, Farley M, Plikaytis B, Deaver K, Cetron MS. Geocoding and linking data from population-based surveillance and the US census to evaluate the impact of median household income on the epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:1212-8.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1997.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessment of national reporting of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae — United States, 1995-1996. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996;45:947-59.
  • Hofmann J, Cetron MS, Farley MM, et al. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:481-6.

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1988-1994:

  • Schuchat A, Broome CV, Hightower AW, Costa S, Parkin W. Use of surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease to estimate the size of the immunosuppressed HIV-infected population. JAMA. 1991;265:3275-9.

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