Publications: group A Streptococcus

On This Page

2000 to Present:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2020 [1 page].
  • Metcalf B, Nanduri S, Chochua S, et al. Cluster Transmission Drives Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Within the United States and Is Focused on Communities Experiencing Disadvantage. J Infect Dis. 2022;226(3):546-553. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiac162.
  • Chochua S, Metcalf B, Li Z, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Penicillin Binding Protein 2× Variants Associated with Reduced Susceptibility to β-Lactam Antibiotics in the United States, 2015-2021. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022;66(9):e0080222. doi:10.1128/aac.00802-22
  • Nanduri SA, Onukwube J, Apostol M, et al. Challenges in Surveillance for Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance, United States, 2014-2017. Public Health Rep. 2022;137(4):687-694. doi:10.1177/00333549211013460
  • Valenciano SJ, Onukwube J, Spiller MW, et al. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs and People Experiencing Homelessness in the United States, 2010-2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(11):e3718-e3726. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa787
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2019 [1 page].
  • Fay K, Onukwube J, Chochua S, et al. Patterns of Antibiotic Nonsusceptibility Among Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infections-United States, 2006-2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(11):1957-1964. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab575
  • Velusamy S, Jordak K, Kupor M, Chochua S, McGee L, Beall B. Sequential Quadriplex Real-Time PCR for Identifying 20 Common emm Types of Group A StreptococcusJ Clin Microbiol. 2020;59(1):e01764-20. Published 2020 Dec 17.
  • Li Y, Nanduri SA, Van Beneden CA, Beall BW. M1UK lineage in invasive group A streptococcus isolates from the USA. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(5):538-539. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30279-6
  • Li Y, Rivers J, Mathis S, et al. Genomic Surveillance of Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Causing Invasive Disease, United States, 2016-2017. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:1547. Published 2020 Jul 24.
  • Adebanjo T, Apostol M, Alden N, et al. Evaluating Household Transmission of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease in the United States Using Population-based Surveillance Data, 2013-2016. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70(7):1478-1481. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz716
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2018 [1 page].
  • Link-Gelles R, Toews KA, Schaffner W, et al. Characteristics of Intracranial Group A Streptococcal Infections in US Children, 1997-2014. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(1):30-35.
  • Valenciano SJ, McMullen C, Torres S, Smelser C, Matanock A, Van Beneden C. Notes from the Field: Identifying Risk Behaviors for Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs and Persons Experiencing Homelessness – New Mexico, May 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(8):205-206. Published 2019 Mar 1. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6808a5
  • Chochua S, Rivers J, Mathis S, et al. Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, United States, 2015-2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(8):1543-1547.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2017.
  • Chochua S, Metcalf BJ, Li Z, Rivers J, Mathis S, Jackson D, Gertz Jr RE, Srinivasan V, Lynfield R, Van Beneden C, McGee L, Beall B. Population and whole genome sequence based characterization of invasive group A streptococci recovered in the United States during 2015. mBio. 2017;8(5):e01422–17
  • Smeesters PR, Laho D, Beall B, Steer AC, Van Beneden CA. Seasonal, Geographic, and Temporal Trends of emm Clusters Associated with Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in US Multistate Surveillance.  Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 10. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw807
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2016 [1 page].
  • Lindegren ML, McCormack L, Barnes B, Mitchel E, Jones S, Schaffner W.  Assessment of Administrative Medical Claims Data for Public Health Surveillance of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Faciitis in Tennessee. Public Health Rep. 2016 Jul-Aug; 131(4):560-5.
  • Nelson GE, Pondo T, Toews KA, Farley MM, Lindegren ML, Lynfield R, Aragon D, Zansky SM, Watt JP, Cieslak PR, Angeles K, Harrison LH, Petit S, Beall B, Van Beneden CA. Epidemiology of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in the United States 2005-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2016; doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw248
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2015 [1 page].
  • Langley G, Hao Y, Pondo T, Miller L, Petit S, Thomas A, Lindegren ML, Farley MM, Dumyati G, Como-Sabetti K, Harrison LH, Baumbach J, Watt J, Van Beneden C. The Impact of Obesity and Diabetes on the Risk of Disease and Death due to Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infections in Adults. Clin Infect Dis. (2015); doi: 10.1093/cid/civ1032
  • Zhu L, Olsen RJ, Nasser W, Beres SB, Vuopio J, Kristinsson KG, Gottfredsson M, Porter AR, DeLeo FR, Musser JM.  A molecular trigger for intercontinental epidemics of group A Streptococcus. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(9):3545–3559. doi:10.1172/JCI82478
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2014 [1 page].
  • Nasser W, Beres SB, Olsen RJ, Dean MA, Rice KA, Wesley Long S, Kristinsson KG, Gottfredsson M, Vuopio J, Raisanen K, Caugant DA, Steinbakk M, Low DE, McGeer A, Darenberg J, Henriques-Normark B, Van Beneden CA, Hoffmann S, Musser JM. Evolutionary pathway to increased virulence and epidemic group A Streptococcus disease derived from 3,615 genome sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2014.14;111(17):E1768-76. Epub 2014 Apr 14.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2013 [1 page].
  • Dooling KL, Crist MB, Nguyen DB, Bass J, Lorentzson L, Toews KA, Pondo T, Stone ND, Beall B, Van Beneden C. Investigation of a prolonged group a streptococcal outbreak among residents of a skilled nursing facility, Georgia, 2009-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec;57(11):1562-7. Epub 2013 Sep 9.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2012 [1 page].
  • Fittipaldi N, Olsen RJ, Beres SB, Van Beneden C, Musser JM. Genomic analysis of emm59 group A Streptococcus invasive strains, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(4):650-2.
  • Olsen RJ, Laucirica DR, Watkins ME, Feske ML, Garcia-Bustillos JR,Vu C,Cantu C, Shelburne SA 3rd,Fittipaldi N. Kumaraswami M, Shea PR, Flores AR, Beres SB, Lovgren M, Tyrrell GJ, Efstratiou A, Low DE, Van Beneden C, Musser JM. Polymorphisms in Regulator of Protease B (RopB) Alter Disease Phenotype and Strain Virulence of Serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus. J Infect Dis. 2012; 205(11):1719-29.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2011 [1 page].
  • Angeles K, Nichols M, Bareta J, Baumbach J. Invasive Group A Streptococcal: New Mexico, 2004-2009. New Mexico Epidemiology. 2010; 2010(9).
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2010 [1 page].
  • Ahmad Y, Gertz RE, Jr., Li Z, Sakota V, Broyles LN, Van Beneden C, Facklam R, Shewmaker PL, Reingold A, Farley MM, Beall BW. Genetic relationships deduced from emm and multilocus sequence typing of invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. canis recovered from isolates collected in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47 (7): 2046-54.
  • Broyles LN, Van Beneden C, Beall B, Facklam R, Shewmaker PL, Malpiedi P, Daily P, Reingold A, Farley MM.  Population-based study of invasive disease caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(6):706-12.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2009 [1 page].
  • Lauth X, von Köckritz-Blickwede M, McNamara CW, Myskowski S, Zinkernagel AS, Beall B, Ghosh P, Gallo RL, and Nizet V. M1 protein allows group A Streptococcal survival in phagocyte extracellular traps through Cathelicidin inhibition. J Innate Immun. 2009; 1:202-14.
  • Steer AC, Law I, Matatolu L, Beall BW, Carapetis JR. Global emm type distribution of group A streptococci: systematic review and implications for vaccine development. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;10:611-6.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Group A streptococcal M protein gene database. Downloadable FTP databases; updated 12/18/08.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2008 [1 page].
  • Rainbow J, Jewell B, Danilla RN, Boxrud D, Beall B, Van Beneden C, Lynfield. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(5):772-77.
  • Woodbury RL, Klammer KA, Xiong Y, Bailiff T, Glennen A, Bartkus JM, Lynfield R, Van Beneden C, and Beall BW for the ABCs Team. Plasmid-borne erm(t) from invasive, macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes Strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(3):1140-3.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2007 [1 page].
  • O’Loughlin RE, Roberson A, Cieslak PR, Lynfield R, Gershman K, Craig A, Albanese BA, Farley MM, Barrett NL, Spina NL, Beall B, Harrison LH, Reingold A, and Van Beneden C for ABCs Team. The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection and potential vaccine implications: United States, 2000-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45:853-61.
  • Thigpen MC, Richards CL, Lynfield R, Barrett NL, Harrison LH, Arnold KE, Reingold A, Bennett NM, Craig AS, Gershman K, Cieslak PR, Lewis P, Greene CM, Beall B, and Van Beneden CA for ABCs/EIP. Invasive group A streptococcal infection in older adults in long-term care facilities and the community, United States, 1998-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1852-59.
  • Arnold KE, Schweitzer JL, Wallace B, Salter M, Neeman R, Hlady WG, Beall B. Tightly clustered outbreak of group A streptococcal disease at a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;12:1377-84.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2006 [1 page].
  • Johnson DR, Kaplan EL, VanGheem A, Facklam RR, Beall B. Characterization of group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes): correlation of M-protein and emm-gene type with T-protein agglutination pattern and serum opacity factor. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:157-64.
  • Persson J, Beall B, Linse S, Lindhal G. Extreme sequence divergence but conserved ligand-binding specificity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein. PLoS Pathog. 2006; 2(5):e47.
  • Pletz MW, McGee L, Van Beneden CA, Petit S, Bardsley M, Barlow M, Klugman KP. The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistance in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates due to spontaneous mutation and horizontal gene transfer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:943-8.
  • Sakota V, Fry AM, Lietman TM, Facklam RR, Li Z, Beall B. Genetically diverse group A streptococci from children in far-western Nepal share high genetic relatedness with isolates from other countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(6):2160-6.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2005 [1 page].
  • Dale JB, Penfound T, Chiang EY, Long V, Shulman ST, Beall B. Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine elicits bactericidal antibodies against variant M subtypes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:833-6.
  • Factor SH, Levine OS, Harrison LH, Farley MM, McGeer A, Skoff T, Wright T, Schwartz B, Schuchat A. Risk factors for pediatric invasive group A streptococcal disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(7):1062-6.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2004 [1 page].
  • Shulman ST, Tanz RR, Kabat K, Cederlund E, Patel D, Li Z, Sakota V, Dale JB, Beall B. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis serotype surveillance in North America, 2000-2002. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:325-32.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2003 [1 page].
  • Espinosa LE, Li Z, Rodriguez RS, Facklam R, Beall B. M-protein gene type distribution within group A streptococcal clinical isolates recovered in Mexico during years 1991-2000: Overlap with type distribution within the United States. J. Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:373-8.
  • Factor SH, Levine OS, Schwartz B, Harrison LH, Farley MM, McGeer A, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal disease: risk factors for adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(8):970-7.
  • Igwe EI, Shewmaker PL, Facklam RR, Farley MM, Van Beneden C, Beall B. Identification of superantigen genes speM, ssa, and smeZ in invasive strains of beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci recovered from humans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229(2):259-64.
  • Jeng A, Sakota V, Li Z, Datta V, Beall B, Nizet V. Molecular genetic analysis of a group A Streptococcus operon encoding serum opacity factor and a novel fibronectin-binding protein, SfbX. J Bacteriol. 2003;185(4):1208-17.
  • Li Z, Sakota V, Jackson D, Franklin AR, Beall B; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network.  Array of M protein gene subtypes in 1064 recent invasive group A streptococcus isolates recovered from the active bacterial core surveillance. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(10):1587-92.
  • Passaro DJ, Smith DS, Hett EC, Reingold AL, Daily P, Van Beneden CA, Vugia DJ. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1989-1999. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;129(3): 471-8.
  • Robinson KA. Rothrock G. Phan Q. Sayler B. Stefonek K. Van Beneden C. Levine OS. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. Risk for severe group A streptococcal disease among patients’ household contacts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(4):443-7.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2002 [1 page].
  • Chuang I, Van Beneden C, Beall B, Schuchat A and the ABCs/EIP Network. Population-based surveillance for postpartum invasive group A streptococcal infections, 1995-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:665-70.
  • Espinosa LE, Li Z, Rodriguez RS, Facklam R, Beall B. M protein gene type distribution within group A streptococcal clinical isolates recovered in Mexico during years 1991-2000: Overlap with type distribution within the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;41:373-8.
  • Facklam RF, Martin DR, Lovgren M, Johnson DR, Efstraiou A, Thompson TA, Gowan S, Kriz P, Tyrrell GJ, Kaplan E, and Beall B. Extension of the classification for group A streptococci by addition of 22 new M protein gene sequence types from clinical isolates: emm103 to emm104. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:28-38.
  • Hu MC, Walls MA, Stroop S, Reddish M, Beall B, and Dale JB. Immunogenicity of a 26-valent group A streptococcal vaccine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2171-77.
  • O’Brien K, Beall B, Barrett NL, Cieslak, Ringold A, Farley MM, Danila, Zell ER, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Schuchat A. Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:268-76.
  • The Prevention of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections Workshop Participants. Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case-patients and among postpartum and post-surgical patients: Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:950-9.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2001 [1 page].
  • Stefonek KR, Maerz LL, Nielson MP, Besser RE, Cieslak PR. Group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis preceded by positive surveillance cultures. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:846-48.
  • Beall B, Gherardi G, Lovgren M, Forwick B, Facklam R, and Tyrrell G. emm and sof gene sequence variation in relation to serological typing of opacity factor positive group A streptococci. Microbiol. 2000;146:1195-1209.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 2000 [1 page].
  • Nizet V, Beall B, Bast DJ, Datta V, Kilburn L, Low DE, De Azavedo JC. Genetic locus for streptolysin S production by group A streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2000;68(7):4245-54.

1995-1999:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 1999 [1 page].
  • Facklam R, Beall B, Efstratiou A, Fischetti V, Johnson D, Kaplan E, Kriz P, Lovgren M, Martin D, Schwartz B, Totolian A, Bessen D, Hollingshead S, Rubin F, Scott J, Tyrrell, G. Demonstration of emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:247-53.
  • Hoe NP, Nakashima K, Lukomski S, Grigsby D, Liu M, Kordari P, Dou SJ, Pan X, Vuopio-Varkila J, Salmenlinna S, McGeer A, Low DE, Schwartz B, Schuchat A, Naidich S, DeLorenzo D Yun-Xin F, Musser JM. Rapid selection of structural variants of group A streptococcus complement-inhibiting protein sustains and enlarges serotype M1 epidemic waves. Nat Med. 1999;5:924-9.
  • York MK, Gibbs L, Perdreau-Remington F, Brooks GF. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from the San Francisco Bay area of Northern California. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(6):1727-31.
  • Beall B, Facklam R, Elliott JA, Franklin AR, Hoenes T, Jackson D, Laclaire L, Thompson T, Viswanathan R. Streptococcal emm types associated with T agglutination patterns and the use of conserved emm gene restriction fragment patterns for sub-typing group A streptococci. J Med Microbiol. 1998;47:893-8.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 1998 [1 page].
  • The Working Group on Prevention of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections. Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case-patients. JAMA. 1998;279:1206-10.
  • Zurawski CA, Bardsley M, Beall B, Elliott JA, Facklam RR, Schwartz B, Farley M. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta: a population-based assessment. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:150-7.
  • Beall B, Facklam R, Hoenes T, Schwartz B. A survey of emm gene sequences from systemic Streptococcus pyogenes infection isolates collected in San Francisco, California; Atlanta, Georgia; and Connecticut in 1994 and 1995. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1231-5.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 1997 [1 page].
  • Fiorentino TR, Beall B, Mshar P, Bessen DE. A genetic-based evaluation of principal tissue reservoir for group A streptococci isolated from normally sterile sites. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:177-82.
  • Beall B, Facklam R, Thompson T. Sequencing emm-specific PCR products for routine and accurate typing of group A streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:953-58.