Rotavirus causes diarrhea and spreads easily among infants and young children. Some children may get severe diarrhea, become dehydrated and need to be hospitalized. You can protect your child with rotavirus vaccine.
Rotavirus disease is common among infants and young children. Rotavirus can cause severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Some children with rotavirus disease lose a lot of fluids and become very dehydrated. As a result, they may need to be hospitalized and can even die.
Rotavirus spreads easily among children. The virus passes into the environment through a sick person's stool (poop) and spreads when a child puts something with rotavirus on it, such as their hand or a toy, in their mouth. Children can also get infected by consuming food and liquids that have rotavirus in them. In the United States, children are more likely to get rotavirus from December to June.
Rotavirus Can Cause Dehydration
Symptoms of Dehydration
- Decrease in urination
- Dry mouth and throat
- Feeling dizzy when standing up
A dehydrated child may cry with few or no tears and be unusually sleepy or fussy.
You can help prevent your child from getting dehydrated by having them drink plenty of liquids. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are helpful to prevent and treat dehydration. These are commonly available in food and drug stores. If you are unsure about how to use ORS, call your doctor.
Protect your child with rotavirus vaccine
The best way to protect your child from rotavirus is with rotavirus vaccine. Almost all children who get rotavirus vaccine (85 to 98 percent) will be protected from severe rotavirus disease. Most vaccinated children will not get sick from rotavirus at all.
There are two different rotavirus vaccines. Both are given by putting vaccine drops in an infant's mouth.
- Rotateq® - Infants should receive three doses of this vaccine—at 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months of age.
- Rotarix® - Infants should receive two doses of this vaccine—at 2 months and 4 months of age.
This first dose of either vaccine is most effective if given before a child is 15 weeks old. Children should receive all doses of rotavirus vaccine before they turn 8 months old.
Millions of infants have been vaccinated
Millions of infants in the United States have gotten rotavirus vaccine safely. However, some studies have shown a small increase in cases of intussusception from rotavirus vaccination. Intussusception is a bowel blockage that is treated in a hospital and may require surgery. It is estimated that risk of intussusception is 1 in every 20,000 infants to 1 in every 100,000 infants after vaccination. Intussusception is most likely to happen within the first week after the first or second dose of rotavirus vaccine.
CDC continues to recommend that infants receive rotavirus vaccine. The benefits of the vaccine far outweigh the small risk of intussusception. Thanks to the rotavirus vaccine, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of children who are hospitalized or visit the emergency room because of rotavirus illness in the United States.
Paying for Rotavirus Vaccines
Most health insurance plans cover the cost of vaccines. However, you may want to check with your insurance provider before going to the doctor. If you don't have health insurance or if your insurance does not cover vaccines for your child, the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program may be able to help. This program helps families of eligible children who might not otherwise have access to vaccines. To find out if your child is eligible, visit the VFC website or ask your child's doctor. You can also contact your state VFC coordinator.
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- CDC’s rotavirus disease website
- Rotavirus fact sheet for parents [401 KB]
- Rotavirus disease [463 KB] - a true story about 10-month-old twin boys who had severe illness caused by rotavirus
- CDC’s rotavirus vaccination website
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration Information for Parents and Caregivers about rotavirus vaccines
- Vaccines for Children Program Brief Answers to Common Questions
- Rotavirus Vaccine Information Statement [276 KB]
- Page last reviewed: December 19, 2016
- Page last updated: February 2, 2017
- Content source:
- National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases
- Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs