Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Human EEEV cases occur relatively infrequently, largely because the primary transmission cycle takes place in and around swampy areas where human populations tend to be limited. All residents of and visitors to areas where EEEV activity has been identified are at risk of infection. People who engage in outdoor work and recreational activities in endemic areas are at increased risk of infection. Persons over age 50 and under age 15 seem to be at greatest risk for developing severe disease when infected with EEEV. Overall, only about 4-5% of human EEEV infections result in EEE. EEEV infection is thought to confer life-long immunity against re-infection. It does not confer significant cross-immunity against other alphaviruses (e.g., western equine encephalitis virus), and it confers no cross-immunity against flaviviruses (e.g., West Nile virus) or bunyaviruses (e.g., La Crosse virus).

In the United States, an average of 7 human cases of EEE are reported annually. To ensure standardization of reporting across the country, CDC recommends that the national surveillance case definition be consistently applied by all state health departments.

Most cases of EEE have been reported from Florida, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina. EEEV transmission is most common in and around freshwater hardwood swamps in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states and the Great Lakes region

Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by year, 2007–2016


A line chart depicting Eastern Equine encephalitis cases by year starting from 2007 to 2016.

Source: ArboNET, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Print only version [PDF – 1 page]

Data Table: In the United States, the number of Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported each year varies. From 2007 through 2016, an average of 7 cases were reported annually (range 3–15).

Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by state of residence, 2007–2016


A map of the continental United States depicting Eastern Equine encephalitis Neuroinvasive Disease Cases reported by state, 2007 to 2016.

Source: ArboNET, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Print only version [PDF – 1 page]

Data table: From 2007 through 2016, Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease cases have been reported in Alabama (3), Arkansas (1), Connecticut (1), Florida (10), Georgia (3), Louisiana (2), Maine (2), Massachusetts (11), Michigan (6), Missouri (1), Montana (1), New Hampshire (5), New Jersey (1), New York (8), North Carolina (8), Rhode Island (1), Vermont (2), Virginia (1), and Wisconsin (1).

Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease average annual incidence by county of residence, 2007–2016


A map of the continental United States depicting Eastern Equine encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Average Annual Incidence by County, 2007 to 2016.

Print only version [PDF – 1 page]

Data Table: This map shows the distribution of Eastern equine encephalitis virus neuroinvasive disease (encephalitis and/or meningitis) average annual incidence by county of residence from 2007 through 2016. Counties are shaded according to incidences ranging from less than 0.20, 0.20 to 0.49, and greater than 0.50 per 100,000 population. Shaded counties are primarily distributed along the Gulf Coast, Eastern seaboard, and the Great Lakes.

Additional Maps, Charts, and Tables

Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease cases and deaths reported to CDC by year and clinical presentation, 2007-2016

Neuroinvasive disease Non-neuroinvasive disease Total
Year Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
2007 3 0  (0) 1 0  (0) 4 0  (0)
2008  4  1  (25)  0  0  (0)  4  1  (25)
2009  3  1  (33)  1  0  (0)  4  1  (25)
2010  10  5  (50)  0  0  (0)  10  5  (50)
2011  4  3  (75)  0  0  (0)  4 3  (75)
2012  15 5  (33)  0  0  (0)  15 5  (33)
2013  8 4  (50)  0  0  (0)  8 4  (50)
2014  8 2  (25)  0  0  (0)  8 2  (25)
2015  6 4  (67)  0  0  (0)  6 4  (67)
2016  7 3  (43)  0  0  (0)  7 3  (43)
Total  68 28  (41)   2  0  (0)  70 28  (40) 

Print only version [PDF – 1 page]

Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease cases reported to CDC by state of residence, 2007-2016

State 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Alabama 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3
Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
California 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Colorado 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dist. of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Florida 0 1 0 4 0 2 3 0 0 0 10
Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 3
Hawaii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Idaho 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Illinois 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Iowa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kentucky 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Louisiana 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
Maine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2
Maryland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Massachusetts 0 1 0 1 1 7 1 0 0 0 11
Michigan 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 2 6
Minnesota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mississippi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Missouri 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Montana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Nebraska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nevada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 7
New Jersey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
New Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New York 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 3 0 8
North Carolina 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 2 8
North Dakota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ohio 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oklahoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oregon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pennsylvania 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rhode Island 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
South Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Dakota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tennessee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Texas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Utah 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vermont 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Virginia 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
West Virginia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wisconsin 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Wyoming 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4 4 4 10 4 15 8 8 6 7 70

Print only version [PDF – 1 page]

 Top of Page

TOP