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2010s: CDC/ATSDR Contributions to Women’s Health

Below is a sample of contributions CDC and ATSDR have made in women's health during the 2010s.

2014

Guidance for Screening and Caring for Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease for Healthcare Providers in U.S. Hospitals
Guidance on how to screen pregnant women for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) and how to care for pregnant women with known or suspected Ebola, including considerations for pregnant healthcare workers.

Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
A web-based training course designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease.

Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Screening - United States, 2007-2012
In 2012, the percentage of women who had not been screened for cervical cancer in the past 5 years was estimated to be 11.4%.The proportion of inadequately screened women is higher among older women, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives.

ATSDR Study Suggests Women’s Exposures to Contaminated Drinking Water at Camp Lejeune Might Be Associated with Adverse Birth Outcomes
Women who were pregnant and were exposed to the contaminated drinking water between 1968 and 1985 were more likely to have increased risk of pre-term birth or children with forms of fetal growth retardation.

CDC Expands Support for State-Based Perinatal Quality Collaboratives
CDC awarded six states for the State-Based Perinatal Quality Collaboratives (PQCs) Cooperative Agreement. Funding will enhance the capabilities of PQCs to improve perinatal outcomes by improving the quality of perinatal care in their states.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization - National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011
This report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins.

Receipt of Reproductive Health Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15–19 Years — National Survey of Family Growth, United States, 2006–2010
Approximately 30% of sexually experienced females aged 15–19 years did not receive contraceptive services, nearly 70% of sexually experienced females aged 15–19 years did not receive recommended STD services, and 74% of sexually experienced males aged 15–19 years did not receive STD services.

Prenatal Breastfeeding Counseling — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 2010
Multicomponent interventions and supports, including prenatal breastfeeding counseling, are needed to help mothers start and continue breastfeeding.

Racial Disparities in Access to Maternity Care Practices That Support Breastfeeding - United States, 2011
Women living in zip code areas with a higher percentage of blacks might have less access to facilities implementing recommended maternity care practices, which might contribute to lower breastfeeding rates among blacks compared with other racial groups.

National and State Patterns of Teen Births in the United States, 1940–2013
The drop in teen birth rates translates into an estimated 4 million fewer births to teenagers from 1992 through 2012.

Information for Health Care Providers and Public Health Professionals: Preventing Tobacco Use During Pregnancy
This factsheet provides information and resources on the health effects and prevalence of tobacco use during pregnancy and what can be done to help pregnant women be tobacco-free.

We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time
This new national HIV and AIDS awareness campaign is a call to action for the general Hispanic/Latino community to talk about HIV and AIDS, increase HIV and AIDS awareness, and decrease HIV-associated stigma and shame. 

Millions of Underserved Women in the US have Benefitted from CDC’s Breast and Cervical Screening Program
More than 4.3 million women with limited access to health care received breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services in the first 20 years of the CDC’s program.

Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013
Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18–64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual.

A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility
This plan highlights the need to better understand and address issues at a population level that contribute to and are caused by infertility in women and men and that may affect the health of the pregnancy.

Know:BRCA
Know:BRCA assesses a young woman’s risk of having a BRCA gene mutation based on her family cancer history.

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: Clinical Providers’ Supplement
This supplement to the PHS PrEP Clinical Practice Guidelines is intended to provide additional information that may be useful to clinicians providing PrEP.

Births to Teens Aged 15-17 Years - United States, 1991–2012
Approximately one in four births to a teen aged 15–19 years in 2012 was to a teen aged 15–17 years.

Community-Based Program to Prevent HIV/STD Infection Among Heterosexual Black Women
This report describes successful efforts by SisterLove, Inc., to develop, rigorously evaluate, and demonstrate the efficacy of Healthy Love, an educational workshop, to reduce HIV- and sexually transmitted disease-related risk behaviors among heterosexual black women.

Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs
This report provides recommendations on how to provide family planning services. Such services include contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, helping clients achieve pregnancy, basic infertility services, preconception health services, and sexually transmitted disease services.

Core State Preconception Health Indicators - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009
This surveillance summary includes data for 39 of 41 indicators: 2009 data for 23 preconception health indicators that were monitored by PRAMS and 16 preconception health indicators that were monitored by BRFSS.

Preventing Maternal Deaths in Africa Blog
Maternal health has improved in most regions of the world, with far fewer women dying during pregnancy and childbirth than 20 years ago. Progress in sub-Saharan Africa, however, has been much slower.

Special Considerations for Prophylaxis for and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant and Postpartum Women
This meeting summary provides updated clinical information to health care providers and public health professionals caring for pregnant, postpartum, and lactating women (because of their unique immunology and physiology and the complexities of balancing maternal and fetal risks) in the setting of a bioterrorist event involving anthrax.

Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV - Texas, 2012
This report describes a case of HIV transmission likely by sexual contact between female partners. In this case, other risk factors for HIV transmission were not reported by the newly infected woman, and the viruses infecting the two women were virtually identical.

“The Burning Truth” Initiative Launched
This initiative encourages young people to keep their skin healthy and beautiful for life by protecting themselves from too much exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun and tanning beds.

Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women
This eight-page fact sheet for health professionals and researchers discusses the links between the two issues, study findings, and addresses what’s being done.

Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Victimization by Sexual Orientation
Findings discuss IPV victimization, frequency, severity, patterns, need for services, and impacts. 

Rates of Indoor Tanning among Female High School Students Lowest in States with Multiple Restrictions on Youth Access
Female high school students in states with indoor tanning laws, particularly those with parental permission laws and age restrictions, were less likely to engage in indoor tanning compared to students in states without any laws.

Infertility Service Use in the United States: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982–2010
Twelve percent of women aged 15–44 in 2006–2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services.

Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results from the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012
The primary cesarean delivery rate for the 38 states, District of Columbia, and New York City that were using the revised certificate by January 1, 2012, was 21.5%. State-specific rates ranged from 12.5% (Utah) to 26.9%.

50th Anniversary of the First Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health
The report provides a retrospective of the past 50 years of tobacco use prevention and control efforts, and includes newly documented health consequences of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.

2013

Binge Drinking: A Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls
Binge drinking is reported by one in eight U.S. adult women and one in five high school girls. Women who binge drink tend to do so frequently and with high intensity. Most high school girls who reported current alcohol use also reported binge drinking.

Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012
These updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.

New Tools Available for CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria (MEC) for Contraceptive Use, 2010
CDC has developed several new tools (summary charts, MEC Wheel, app) to assist health care providers in accessing and using the U.S. MEC.

Show Your Love Campaign
Show Your Love is a national campaign designed to improve the health of women and babies by promoting preconception health and health care. The campaign’s main goal is to increase the number of women who plan their pregnancies and engage in healthy behaviors before becoming pregnant.

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation
This special report is the first of its kind to present comparisons between lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men by gender. Among the findings: Nearly 1 in 3 lesbians (29.4%), 1 in 2 bisexual women (49.3%), and 1 in 4 heterosexual women (23.6%) experienced at least one form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner in her lifetime.

Updated HPV Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians
This web-based training course is designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.

New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study that looks at the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in girls and women before and after the introduction of the HPV vaccine shows a significant reduction in vaccine-type HPV in U.S. teens.

U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: Adapted from the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2nd Edition
The recommendations address a select group of common, yet sometimes controversial or complex, issues regarding initiation and use of specific contraceptive methods. These recommendations are a companion document to the previously published CDC recommendations U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010.

Vital Signs: Overdoses of Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers and Other Drugs Among Women - United States, 1999–2010
In 2010, a total of 15,323 deaths among women were attributed to drug overdose, a rate of 9.8 per 100,000 population. Deaths from opioid pain relievers (OPRs) increased fivefold between 1999 and 2010 for women. Health-care providers should follow guidelines for responsible prescribing, including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems, when prescribing OPR.

CDC launched or updated several apps for health providers and others: 

Trends in Smoking Before, During, and After Pregnancy - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, United States, 40 Sites, 2000–2010
For the majority of sites, smoking prevalence before, during, or after pregnancy did not change over time. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 13.3% in 2000 to 12.3% in 2010, and the prevalence of smoking after delivery decreased from 18.6% in 2000 to 17.2% in 2010.

Science Speaks: A Focus on NIOSH Women in Science
The Women in Science video series spotlights a few of NIOSH's many talented female scientists. They discuss their journeys to science, challenges and experiences along the way, work duties, and how they balance work with family. Also, they offer advice to aspiring scientists, encouraging girls and young women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

AMIGAS Outreach Intervention
AMIGAS is a bilingual educational outreach intervention designed to help promotoras (community health workers) and other lay health educators increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanics who have rarely or never had a Pap test. CDC funded a recent randomized controlled trial that showed AMIGAS is effective in promoting cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) among Hispanics aged 21 to 65 years.

Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop
The data in this report provide a comprehensive picture of pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy rates for women in the United States continued to decline in 2009, reaching the lowest level in 12 years (102.1 per 1,000 women aged 15–44). This level is 12% below the 1990 peak (115.8).

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding - How Communities Can Help
Across the United States, most new mothers hope to breastfeed. Breastfeeding can protect the health of babies and their mothers. With support from their families and communities, mothers are more likely to be able to breastfeed their babies.

On-Line Course Trains Nurses on Preventing Workplace Violence
A new free online course aims to train nurses on recognizing and preventing workplace violence. The multimedia training incorporates lesson text, videos depicting workplace violence incidents, testimonials from real nurses, and lesson quizzes.

How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?
Life expectancy for black females was 3.3 years lower than that of white females. This difference was due to higher death rates for black females for heart disease, cancer, diabetes, perinatal conditions, and stroke.

2012

African American Women Claiming their Power in Fight Against HIV
Take Charge. Take the Test. messages remind women that they have the power to take charge of their health and protect themselves from HIV through testing, talking openly with their partners about HIV, and insisting on safe sex. Resources for Take Charge. Take the Test

Breast Cancer Disparities
Black women have the highest death rates of all racial and ethnic groups and are 40% more likely to die of breast cancer than white women. The reasons for this difference result from many factors including having more aggressive cancers and fewer social and economic resources. To improve this disparity, black women need more timely follow-up and improved access to high-quality treatment.

Breastfeeding Action Guides
Health providers play a role to support patients’ intentions to breastfeed as well as health system changes to improve patient satisfaction and breastfeeding outcomes. These action guides outline what doctors, nurses, and health care leaders can do to make it possible for mothers to breastfeed their babies.

CDC Ad Campaign Reveals Harsh Reality of Smoking-Related Diseases
A hard-hitting national ad campaign that depicts the harsh reality of illness and damage suffered as a result of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was launched by CDC.

Current Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2006–2010, and Changes in Patterns of Use Since 1995
Sixty-two percent of women of reproductive age are currently using contraception. Of women using a contraceptive method in the month of the interview, the most common methods used are the pill (28%, or 10.6 million women) and female sterilization (27%, or 10.2 million women).

Emergency Preparedness and Response: Pregnant Women and Newborns
Research studies conducted after disasters in the United States have shown that pregnant women may have increased medical risks. Recently, CDC began to build capacity to respond to all types of events and track their effects on women and infants.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders App
This application provides the latest information related to the use of alcohol during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This application allows users to easily find and share the latest in the prevention, recognition, and treatment of FASDs.

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, September 2012
These updated tables for 119 chemicals include information by age, sex, and race/ethnicity.

Health Care Providers and Teen Pregnancy Prevention
Health care providers play a critical role in further reducing teen pregnancy rates through the care provided to adolescent patients. Tools, resources, media, and messages are available to assist the health provider.

Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth
These Key Statistics give some of the most important findings from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). All results are from published reports or special tabulations. Where available, a hyperlink to the source report is given.

Nurses’ Miscarriages Linked to Chemicals at Work
A new CDC study finds a greater-than-expected risk of miscarriages among nurses, associated with occupational exposures to hazardous drugs.

Preconception Care and Health care Resource Center
The Preconception Health and Health Care Resource Center (the Resource Center) is a comprehensive web directory of hyperlinks to tools and resources designed to advance the health of men and women of reproductive age.

Right to Know Campaign Materials
CDC conducted a study to explore the barriers to breast cancer screening for women who have physical disabilities. As a result of this study, a family of health promotion materials (e.g., posters, MP3 files, low-tech fliers, print advertisements, and tip sheets) has been designed to increase awareness of breast cancer among women with physical disabilities and encourage these women to get screened.

Safety and Health among Hotel Cleaners
CDC convened a number of partners to develop the National Services Agenda, which includes safety and health goals for the Ac­commodations Industry. Groups such as unions, worker organizations, government agencies, and hotel/motel associations can build partnerships to implement these goals and help ensure that hotels are safe for all employees.

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection or Infected with HIV
This report summarizes CDC’s assessment of the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression and the resulting updated guid­ance.

Use of Selected Clinical Preventive Services Among Adults — United States, 2007–2010: Breast Cancer Screening Among Adult Women
In 2010, an estimated 75.4% women aged ≥40 years and 79.7% of women aged 50–74 years reported having a mammogram within the past 2 years.

2011

Vital Signs: Hospital Support for Breastfeeding
The report used CDC surveillance data to determine the percent of U.S. hospitals with policies and practices that are consistent with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. In addition, the report provides actions steps for government officials; health practitioners; hospitals administrators; and new mothers to support hospitals as they work to promote breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. Spurred by the release of this issue of Vital Signs, Kaiser Permanente announced that by January 1, 2013, all of its 29 hospitals that offer maternal and child health services will meet the ten steps to support breastfeeding as a measure of hospital quality and a key strategy in preventing childhood obesity.

Responding to Influenza: A Toolkit for Prenatal Care Providers (pdf)
The purpose of this toolkit is to provide basic information and communication resources to help prenatal care providers implement CDC recommendations.

Cooperative Agreement to Support Young Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer
CDC awarded funding to seven organizations for a new three-year cooperative agreement, "Developing support and educational awareness for young (<45 years of age) breast cancer survivors in the United States," as part of a broader effort to support breast cancer awareness in young women.

Million Hearts™: Preventing a Million Heart Attacks and Strokes in Five Years
Cardiovascular disease - heart disease and stroke - is the leading killer of women. To reduce stroke and heart attacks across the nation, the recently launched Million Hearts initiative is working to promote heart-healthy lifestyles and to improve patient care by focusing on the “ABCS” of clinical prevention: Aspirin for people at risk, Blood pressure control, Cholesterol management, and Smoking cessation.

CDC Announces New Effort to Boost Number of Baby-Friendly Hospitals
CDC has awarded nearly $6 million over three years to the National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality to help hospitals nationwide make quality improvements to maternity care to better support mothers and babies to be able to breastfeed. The goal of the project is to accelerate the number of U.S. Baby-Friendly hospitals.

CDC Launches Effort to Protect Cancer Patients from Infections
CDC’s Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients program is a comprehensive initiative focusing on providing information, action steps, and tools for patients, their families, and their health care providers to reduce the risk of life-threatening infections during chemotherapy treatment.

National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)
This survey provides baseline data that will be used to track trends in sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence. On average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States, based on a survey conducted in 2010. More than 1 million women are raped in a year and over 6 million women and men are victims of stalking in a year. These findings emphasize that sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are important and widespread public health problems in the United States.

Maternal and Infant Outcomes Among Severely Ill Pregnant and Postpartum Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) - United States, April 2009-August 2010
Among women who delivered while hospitalized for influenza, 63.6% delivered preterm or very preterm and 43.8% delivered low birth weight infants compared with U.S. averages of 12.3% for preterm birth and 8.2% for low birth weight.

Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy in the U.S.
Prevention efforts work by teaching teens how and why to delay starting sex and steps that they need to take if they become sexually active.

Opioid Pain Killers Linked to Increased Risk of Some Birth Defects
Babies born to women who take opioid pain killers such as codeine, oxycodone or hydrocodone just before or in early pregnancy are at increased but modest risk of birth defects, according to a CDC study.

Smoking Early in Pregnancy Raises Risk of Heart Defects in Infants
Maternal cigarette smoking in the first trimester was associated with a 20 to 70 percent greater likelihood that a baby would be born with certain types of congenital heart defects, according to a CDC study. The study is in the Feb. 28 issue of the journal Pediatrics.

Nail Technicians’ Health and Workplace Exposure Control
Nail salon employees are potentially exposed to dozens of chemicals including acrylates, solvents, and biocides as dusts or vapors.

Women at High Risk for Diabetes, Access and Quality of Health Care, 2003-2006
This report uses national datasets to provide information about the quality of care among women at high risk for diagnosed diabetes compared with women not at high risk. (CDC and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report)

Reproductive Health Assessment After Disaster Toolkit
This toolkit provides a set of tools to assess the reproductive health needs of women aged 15-44 affected by natural and man-made disasters. Questionnaire topics include safe motherhood, infant care, family planning, family stressors and service needs, health and risk behaviors, and gender-based violence. The RHAD Toolkit is intended for United States health departments, however, other government and non-governmental organizations may be interested who provide reproductive health services to U.S. disaster-affected women. (Funding and scientific technical assistance provided by CDC).

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Contraceptive Methods During the Postpartum Period
CDC updated the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMEC) for Contraceptive Use recommendations for combined hormonal contraceptive use among postpartum women, based on new scientific evidence.

2010

CDC provided guidance and recommendations on the prevention and treatment of H1N1 in pregnant women during the 2009-2010 flu season.

Updated scientific evidence on how tobacco causes disease. The report, How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General, also explains how smoking harms reproduction and children's health. It discusses how smoking reduces a woman's chance of getting pregnant and how it can increase the risk for pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low birth weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

CDC in partnership with Liz Claiborne, Inc., developed a new online training, Dating Matters: Understanding Teen Dating Violence Prevention. The training is for educators, youth leaders, and others working with teens to help them understand the importance of healthy relationships and how to prevent violence before it starts.

Text4baby is a mobile information service that provides free text messages to pregnant women and new moms to help keep them safe and healthy. The messages address a variety of topics, including immunizations, nutrition, flu, mental health, oral health, and more. CDC is one of many outreach partners for this new program.

The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines- 2010 advise physicians and other health-care providers on the most effective treatment regimens, screening procedures, and prevention and vaccination strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. The Guidelines are based on newly available evidence and include: expanded STD prevention recommendations including preexposure HPV vaccine; revised gonorrhea treatment regimens; new treatment regimens for genital warts and bacterial vaginosis; discussion of the role of mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in the evaluation of urethritis and cervicitis and treatment related implications; and revised guidance on the diagnostic evaluation and management of syphilis.

For 20 years, CDC's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-cost mammograms and Pap tests to low-income women with little or no health insurance. Since 1990, NBCCEDP-funded programs have served more than 3.7 million women, provided more than 9.2 million breast and cervical cancer screening examinations, and diagnosed more than 44,885 breast cancers, 2,554 invasive cervical cancers, and 123,563 premalignant cervical lesions, of which 42% are high-grade.

CDC revised the Guidelines for the Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) Disease. These 2010 guidelines were developed using an evidence-based approach in collaboration with several professional associations.

Recent Trends in Cesarean Delivery in the United States reports that the cesarean rate rose by 53% from 1996 to 2007, reaching 32%, the highest rate ever reported in the United States. From 1996 to 2007, the cesarean rate increased for mothers in all age and racial and Hispanic origin groups.

Use of Contraception in the United States: 1982-2008, presents national estimates of contraceptive use and method choice based on the 1982, 1995, 2002, and 2006–2008 National Surveys of Family Growth. Contraceptive use is a major factor affecting birth and pregnancy rates as well as the rate of unintended pregnancy.

CDC convened an Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, a federal advisory committee established by the Education and Awareness Requires Learning Young (EARLY) Act, section 10413 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148). The EARLY Act authorizes CDC to develop initiatives to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women, particularly among those under the age of 40 and those at heightened risk for developing the disease.

U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 provides recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions.

This report, Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2006-2008, presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females 15-19 years of age in the United States in 2006-2008 from the National Survey of Family Growth.

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