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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS)

Below are links to information related to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Click on the below menu or scroll down to view general information and programs, research, statistics and guidelines on this topic.

Research, Recommendations and Guidelines



Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2012
The National Profile section contains figures that show trends and the distribution of nationally reportable STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and location for the United States.

Fact Sheet: Reported STDs in the United States 2012 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
Young women face the most serious long-term health consequences of STDs. It is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.


HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States
Sex work can increase a person’s risk of becoming infected with or transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by engaging in unsafe sexual behaviors and/or substance use.

Two New Promising Treatment Regimens for Gonorrhea
Two new antibiotic regimens using existing drugs – injectable gentamicin in combination with oral azithromycin and oral gemifloxacin in combination with oral azithromycin – successfully treated gonorrhea infections in a clinical trial conducted by CDC and NIH. The study was conducted to identify new treatment options in the face of growing antibiotic resistance, and findings will be considered for inclusion in future treatment guidelines.

STD Treatment App
CDC announces the launch of its STD Treatment (Tx) Guidelines mobile app, which helps health care providers easily access diagnostic information and the current STD Treatment Guidelines. Providers who use this app will have quick access to information about diagnosing and treating 21 STDs as well as the booklet "A Guide to Taking a Sexual History."

New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study looking at the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in girls and women before and after the introduction of the HPV vaccine shows a significant reduction in vaccine-type HPV in U.S. teens.

STD Awareness
Use CDC resources to help increase awareness about sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Americans Infographic
This infographic highlights the impact, causes, and consequences of sexually transmitted diseases among young people – and what they can do to protect themselves.

Ready-To-Use STD Curriculum - Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Comprehensive curricular materials that can be downloaded by clinical educators for classroom use. Each module contains a slide presentation, an instructor's guide, a case study, and test questions.

Updated HPV Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians
A web-based training course designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Continuing education credits available.

Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States
CDC’s cost estimates reflect the lifetime direct medical cost per case of eight common STIs in the United States:  chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. The consequences of untreated STIs are often worse for young women.

STD Trends in the United States 2011 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
but young women face the most serious long-term health consequences. Left untreated, these diseases can silently steal a woman’s chance to have children later in life; it is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.

Genital HPV Fact Sheet – Updated
This fact sheet is updated as of February 14, 2013.


Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State (3/8/2012)
Regardless of race or gender, data show that sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when compared to older adults.

Atlas on HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Data (1/31/2012)
The Atlas provides interactive maps, graphs, tables, and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of HIV, AIDS, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary syphilis surveillance data. TB and viral hepatitis are slated to be included in 2012.


STD Trends in the United States: 2010 National Data for Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis (12/29/2011)
This document summarizes 2010 national data on gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis that are published in CDC’s report, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2010. The data are based on state and local STD case reports from a variety of private and public sources, the majority of which come from non-STD clinic settings, such as private physician offices and health maintenance organizations.

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2010 (12/8/2011)
Data from the report show a heavy burden in the United States for chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis and highlight ongoing health inequalities that drive racial disparities. CDC estimates that there are 19 million new infections each year in the U.S. with an annual cost of $17 billion to the U.S. healthcare system.

10 Ways STDs Impact Women Differently from Men (9/16/2011)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the U.S., especially among women, who disproportionately bear the long-term consequences of STDs.

Community Approaches to Reducing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (9/16/2011)
The Division of STD Prevention is pleased to announce that it will award a total of $5.4 million over the next three years to support the planning, implementation, and evaluation of innovative, interdisciplinary interventions to: reduce STD disparities; promote sexual health; and advance community wellness.

STD Goes Mobile (9/16/2011)
Popular fact sheets now available for smart phones and other mobile devices.




Updated Fact Sheet: Oral Sex and HIV Risk
Factors that may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.


New Factsheet: HIV Among Transgender People
Transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. By race/ethnicity, black/African American transgender women have the highest percentage of new HIV-positive test results. Efforts are under way to improve the quality of HIV data collected on transgender communities.

Differences Between HIV-Infected Men and Women in Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes — Six African Countries, 2004–2012
In each country, women comprised 61%–67% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollees. Median CD4 count range was 119–141 cells/µL for men and 137–161 cells/µL for women. Compared with women, a greater percentage of men initiated ART who had World Health Organization (WHO) HIV stage IV disease.

Basic Information on PrEP
Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a prevention option for people who are at high risk of getting HIV. It’s meant to be used consistently, as a pill taken every day, and to be used with other prevention options such as condoms. Find out if PrEP is right for you.

Social Determinants of Health among Adults with Diagnosed HIV Infection in 18 Areas, 2005–2009
The data presented in this HIV surveillance supplemental report are a snapshot of the environment in which people lived at the time of HIV diagnosis. This report presents data tables on diagnoses of HIV infection, organized into 3 main sections: by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics; by social determinants of health and selected characteristics; and by social determinants of health, race/ethnicity, and selected characteristics.

Updated HIV Surveillance in Women Slide Set (through 2011)
Eighteen slides in PowerPoint and PDF - includes diagnosis of HIV Infection among adult and adolescent females, rates of diagnosis, deaths, Stage 3 classifications, and more.

HIV Among Women
As of the end of 2010, one in four people living with a diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were women.  Black/African American women and Latinas are disproportionately affected by HIV infection compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Updated fact sheet.

Impact of an Innovative Approach to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV — Malawi, July 2011–September 2012
Using data collected through routine program supervision, this report is the first to summarize Malawi's experience implementing Option B+ under the direction of the Ministry of Health and supported by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

HIV Infection Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk — United States, 2010
Overall, 25.8% of participants had never been tested for HIV until the NHBS survey. Given the high HIV prevalence in this sample, additional research should be conducted to identify culturally appropriate interventions that overcome barriers to HIV testing and increase linkage to care for heterosexuals with low SES in urban areas with high prevalence of AIDS.

Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2007–2010
Among an estimated total of 55,717 older females, 66% of infections were attributed to heterosexual contact and 33% to injection drug use. The estimated prev­alence rates per 100,000 population were 476.3 among older males and 113.2 among older females.

HIV Testing Trends in the United States, 2000-2011
The decrease in the percentage (-9.5%) of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months was not significant from 2000 to 2010. The percentage of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months varied by race/ethnicity and age group (Table 7).


HIV Among Youth in the US: Protecting a Generation (10/30/2012)
About 86% of young females got HIV through heterosexual sex and 13% from injection drug use. A coordinated effort by parents, families, schools, community-based organizations, web-based prevention programs, and the government is needed to ensure that all youth understand what puts them at risk for HIV and how to prevent it.

HIV Testing in the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010 (10/30/2012)
Among U.S. women aged 15–44, the percentage ever tested for HIV outside of blood donation increased significantly from 35% in 1995 to 55% in 2002, and to 59% in 2006–2010.

Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics of Adults Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection --- Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2007 (9/30/2012)
Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse was reported by 216 (42%) of the 516 women who reported having anal or vaginal intercourse with a man during the 12 months before the interview. Among 959 women, 244 (25%) reported receiving HIV care at an obstetrics and gynecology clinic during the past 12 months.

Interim Guidance for Clinicians Considering the Use of Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Heterosexually Active Adults (8/30/2012)
This interim guidance includes consideration of new information and addresses pregnancy and safety issues for heterosexually active adults at very high risk for sexual HIV acquisition that were not discussed in the previous interim guidance for the use of PrEP in MSM.

CDC Reports Progress, Innovations and Challenges in Scaling-Up Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission Efforts in Africa (8/30/2012)
Research and analysis from the CDC on Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference reveal mother-to-child transmission has decreased in South Africa, provides insights into new clinical and laboratory data in resource-limited settings, and highlights the application of best practices in Mozambique.

Trends in HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2011 (8/30/2012)
Overall and among female and white students, condom use increased during 1991-2003 and then did not change significantly during 2003-2011.

Let’s Stop HIV Together (8/30/2012)
The campaign gives voice to people living with HIV from all walks of life, alongside their friends and family members. As part of the campaign, these individuals share their personal stories and call on everyone to join the fight against the disease.

Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection or Infected with HIV (6/30/2012)
This report summarizes CDC’s assessment of the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression and the resulting updated guid­ance. These updated recommendations affirm the previous guidance, which stated that 1) the use of hormonal contracep­tives, including combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and implants, is safe for women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV (US MEC category 1), and 2) all women who use contraceptive methods other than condoms should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for sexually transmitted infections.

Diagnoses of HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2010 (3/302012)
This report includes estimated numbers and rates of diagnoses of HIV infection based on data from 51 areas (46 states and 5 U.S. dependent areas) that have had confidential name-based HIV infection reporting. The rates among adults and adolescents in 2010 were 20.0 among males and 6.4 among females.

Updated HIV Surveillance - Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2010) Slide Set (3/302012)
Slides provide information on diagnosis by sex, adult and adolescent, transmission category, race/ethnicity, sexual contact, injection drug use, and more.

African American Women Claiming their Power in Fight Against HIV (3/302012)
Take Charge. Take the Test. messages remind women that they have the power to take charge of their health and protect themselves from HIV through testing, talking openly with their partners about HIV, and insisting on safe sex.  Resources for Take Charge. Take the Test

National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness (3/302012)
Be aware of the special risks HIV/AIDS pose for women and girls, and help raise awareness of the disease's impact on them.


PMTCT: A Winnable Battle in South Africa (12/29/2011)
South African and CDC researchers present new evidence that the country is winning the fight against the HIV and AIDS epidemic.  According to their national survey results, the mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rate for HIV is 3.5% and virtually eliminating this form of HIV transmission is therefore within reach by 2015 with intensified efforts.

Vital Signs: HIV Prevention Through Care and Treatment -- United States (12/29/2011)
Among Medical Monitoring Project participants (representing adults aged ≥ 18 years receiving medical care for HIV infection), 89% had been prescribed ART, of whom 77% had a suppressed viral load. However, only 28% of all persons living with HIV infection in the United States are estimated to be virally suppressed, in large part because only approximately 41% are both aware of their infection and receiving ongoing HIV care.

New Hope for Stopping HIV:  Testing and Medical Care Save Lives (12/8/2011)
Getting an HIV test is the first step to finding out if you have HIV and getting medical care. Without medical care, HIV leads to AIDS and early death.

Updated Fact Sheet: HIV in the United States (12/8/2011)
CDC estimates 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV infection. One in five (20%) of those people are unaware of their infection.

Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Women (9/16/2011)
According to 2009 HIV surveillance data, women represented 24% of all diagnoses of HIV infection among United States adults and adolescents in 40 states with long-established, confidential name-based reporting. 

Characteristics Associated with HIV Infection Among Heterosexuals in Urban Areas with High AIDS Prevalence - 24 Cities, United States, 2006-2007 (9/16/2011)
Low SES and other adverse social conditions can increase the risk for HIV infection through sexual exploitation, marital instability, unstable sexual partnerships, poor mental health, substance abuse, and limited access to health care and preventive services. In addition, socioeconomic segregation confines low-SES persons to sexual networks with high underlying rates of HIV and other STDs, thereby further increasing their risk for HIV infection.

HIV Surveillance:  Enhanced Perinatal Surveillance--15 Areas, 2005-2008 (5/10/2011)
The purpose of this report is to describe the popula­tion of HIV-infected women who gave birth during 2005-2008. These data provide information for further focusing perinatal prevention efforts in the United States and the dependent areas.

HIV Surveillance in Women Updated Slide Set (5/10/2011)
The 15 slides are available in Adobe PDF format and PowerPoint PPT format.

Results of FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial Examining Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Heterosexual Women (4/20/2011)
FHI announced that it will stop the FEM-PrEP study of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among heterosexual women.  The decision was made after a regularly scheduled interim review of data by the trial's independent data monitoring committee determined that the trial could not demonstrate efficacy even if it continued to its originally-planned conclusion.

HIV/AIDS among Hispanics/Latinos (1/7/2011)
The HIV epidemic is a serious public health issue in the Latino1 community. The HIV infection rate among Latinos in 2009 was nearly three times as high as that of whites (26.4 vs 9.1 per 100,000 population).




National Estimate Shows Not Enough Young Women Tested for Chlamydia (3/302012)
Just 38 percent of sexually active young women were screened for chlamydia in the previous year, according to the most recent nationally representative estimate of chlamydia screening among this population conducted by the CDC. CDC recommends annual screening for all sexually active women aged 25 and under.


CDC Grand Rounds: Chlamydia Prevention: Challenges and Strategies for Reducing Disease Burden and Sequelae (4/20/2011)
Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in chlamydial infection exist, with prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks approximately five times the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites. Among sexually active females aged 14-19 years, chlamydia prevalence is 6.8% overall (4.4% among non-Hispanic whites and 16.2% among non-Hispanic blacks).



Update to CDC's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections (8/30/2012)
CDC recommends combination therapy with ceftriaxone 250 mg intramuscularly and either azithromycin 1 g orally as a single dose or doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days as the most reliably effective treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea.

Highlights of the 2012 STD Prevention Conference: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (3/30/2012)
Summaries of research presented at the March 2012 STD Prevention conference focus on:
Self-Reported Chlamydia Testing of Women in the United States, 2006-2008; Trends in Chlamydia Retesting Rates Among Males and Females; How One Simple Clinic Systems-Level Intervention Increased Overall Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Retesting Rates; and Increasing Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Retesting Rates in a Student Health Center Using a Quality Improvement Approach.




Voluntary Recall of One Lot of Gardasil HPV Vaccine
On December 16, 2013 CDC was informed by Merck that the company planned to implement a voluntary recall of one lot (lot J007354) of Gardasil® [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant], due to the potential for a small number of vials to contain glass particles as a result of breakage during the manufacturing process.


Updated HPV Vaccine (Gardasil®) What You Need to Know (3/30/2012)
This updated information sheet answers eight questions: what is HPV, why get vaccinated, who should get this HPV vaccine and when, why should some people not get the vaccine or wait, what are the risks from this vaccine, what if there is a moderate or severe reaction, what is the national vaccine injury compensation program, and how can I learn more.

Are Your Kids Protected from HPV-related Cancers? (1/31/2012)
Protect your sons and daughters from human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer and other diseases associated with HPV by getting them the HPV vaccine. It takes 3 shots to complete the series, so make sure they get all 3 to be protected.


National and State Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13 Through 17 Years - United States, 2010 (9/16/2011)
In 2010, vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13 through 17 years increased from coverage in 2009; however, the percentage-point increase in ≥1 dose of HPV among females (4.4 points) was less than half the increase observed for ≥1 dose of Tdap (13.1) and ≥1 dose of MenACWY (9.1).



Syphilis Profiles, 2010 (3/8/2012)
The profiles provide an overview of syphilis morbidity in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The profiles consist of figures and tables of data on syphilis from the U.S. states and territories through 2010.

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