Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS)
Below are links to information related to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Click on the below menu or scroll down to view general information and programs, research, statistics and guidelines on this topic.
Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2012
The National Profile section contains figures that show trends and the distribution of nationally reportable STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and location for the United States.
Fact Sheet: Reported STDs in the United States 2012 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
Young women face the most serious long-term health consequences of STDs. It is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.
HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States
Sex work can increase a person’s risk of becoming infected with or transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by engaging in unsafe sexual behaviors and/or substance use.
Two New Promising Treatment Regimens for Gonorrhea
Two new antibiotic regimens using existing drugs – injectable gentamicin in combination with oral azithromycin and oral gemifloxacin in combination with oral azithromycin – successfully treated gonorrhea infections in a clinical trial conducted by CDC and NIH. The study was conducted to identify new treatment options in the face of growing antibiotic resistance, and findings will be considered for inclusion in future treatment guidelines.
STD Treatment App
CDC announces the launch of its STD Treatment (Tx) Guidelines mobile app, which helps health care providers easily access diagnostic information and the current STD Treatment Guidelines. Providers who use this app will have quick access to information about diagnosing and treating 21 STDs as well as the booklet "A Guide to Taking a Sexual History."
New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study looking at the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in girls and women before and after the introduction of the HPV vaccine shows a significant reduction in vaccine-type HPV in U.S. teens.
Use CDC resources to help increase awareness about sexually transmitted diseases.
Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Americans Infographic
This infographic highlights the impact, causes, and consequences of sexually transmitted diseases among young people – and what they can do to protect themselves.
Ready-To-Use STD Curriculum - Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Comprehensive curricular materials that can be downloaded by clinical educators for classroom use. Each module contains a slide presentation, an instructor's guide, a case study, and test questions.
Updated HPV Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians
A web-based training course designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Continuing education credits available.
Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States
CDC’s cost estimates reflect the lifetime direct medical cost per case of eight common STIs in the United States: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. The consequences of untreated STIs are often worse for young women.
STD Trends in the United States 2011 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
but young women face the most serious long-term health consequences. Left untreated, these diseases can silently steal a woman’s chance to have children later in life; it is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.
Genital HPV Fact Sheet – Updated
This fact sheet is updated as of February 14, 2013.
Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State (3/8/2012)
Regardless of race or gender, data show that sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when compared to older adults.
Atlas on HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Data (1/31/2012)
The Atlas provides interactive maps, graphs, tables, and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of HIV, AIDS, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary syphilis surveillance data. TB and viral hepatitis are slated to be included in 2012.
Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Characteristics and Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults Compared with Older Adults — Seven African Countries, 2004–2013
Adolescent and young adult ART enrollees were almost exclusively female, commonly pregnant, unmarried, and unemployed. In African countries with generalized epidemics, being young, female, and unemployed increases the risk for voluntary or coerced sexual contact with older, HIV-infected men.
HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV Infection — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 21 U.S. Cities, 2010
The percentages of women who had vaginal sex without a condom were similar among women in all categories of education and income. Anal sex without a condom was more common among those with lower levels of income.
Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014
This document provides: a summary of recent scientific evidence and more that support the recommendations; and updates and expanded recommendations on reproductive health care for women and men, and pregnancy-related services to reduce the risk of sexual or perinatal transmission during recognized pregnancy.
Update HIV Fact Sheets
Find updated information about HIV among African Americans, Latinos, and gay and bisexual men, in English and Spanish.
National Latino AIDS Awareness
Help raise awareness of HIV and AIDS prevention among Hispanics/Latinos living in the United States and its territories. Among Hispanic/Latina, the rate of HIV infection is 4 times as high as that of white females.
Research and Evaluation Agenda for Maternal Health and HIV in Sub-Saharan African
This research and evaluation agenda synthesizes existing knowledge and frames priority research questions that must be answered to improve maternal health in the context of sub-Saharan Africa’s HIV pandemic. The agenda also seeks to provide guidance to researchers, programmers, and policymakers about how to advance research and evaluation relevant for policy, programs, and service delivery in the short-and medium-term.
CDC launches HIV Treatment Works, a new Act Against AIDS Campaign
This campaign shows how people living with HIV have overcome barriers to get in care and stay on treatment. On this website, you will find information encouraging people living with HIV to get in care and stay on treatment, as well as resources on how to live well. Hear Angie’s Story.
HIV Infection and Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Injecting Drug Users — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Cities, 2009
Many participants reported having unprotected sex with opposite-sex partners during the past 12 months: 70% of men and 73% of women had unprotected vaginal sex, and 25% of men and 21% of women had unprotected anal sex. More women than men reported having sex in exchange for money or drugs (31% and 18%, respectively).
CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care and that some people with risk factors get tested more often. You should also be tested if you have been sexually assaulted or if you are a woman who is pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations
CDC has issued new guidelines, now available online, for HIV testing of serum or plasma specimens. The updated recommendations allow detection of acute HIV infections that would be missed by antibody tests alone and can expedite entry of patients into care because of reduced turnaround time for test results.
Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Persons Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection — Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2009
Women living with HIV are at an increased risk for developing cervical cancer. The findings in this report are consistent with previous studies showing that 77%–81% of HIV-infected women received cervical cancer screening in the past year and suggest that one of five women with HIV were not screened for cervical cancer.
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Infection Among Asians in the United States and Dependent Areas
Of the estimated 982 adult and adolescent Asians diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011, 84% (821) were men and 16% (153) were women.
Webcast Archive - CDC’s Public Health Grand Rounds, “Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV Infection
This session of Grand Rounds explored the opportunities for using PrEP as another tool to prevent the transmission of HIV and discuss the challenges to effective implementation that must be addressed to make PrEP a success.
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States
In 2011, less than 1% (81) of 50,199 estimated HIV diagnoses were among NHOPI; 70 diagnoses were in men, and 10* were in women.
Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: A Clinical Practice Guideline
These guidelines provide comprehensive information for the use of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection in adults. The document includes sections on published trials of antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis among heterosexual men and women, women who become pregnant or breastfeed while taking PrEP medication, risk behavior assessment for heterosexually active men and women, and recommended indications for PrEP use by heterosexually active men and women.
Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: Clinical Providers’ Supplement
This supplement to the PHS PrEP Clinical Practice Guidelines is intended to provide additional information that may be useful to clinicians providing PrEP. The document includes a section on PrEP during conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding.
PrEP for HIV Prevention
If you think you are at risk of getting HIV, ask your health care provider if PrEP is right for you. Along with other prevention methods like condoms, PrEP can offer good protection against HIV if taken every day.
Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection — United States, 2014
CDC and CSTE have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages. The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria.
Updated Fact Sheet: Oral Sex and HIV Risk
Factors that may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.
New Factsheet: HIV Among Transgender People
Transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. By race/ethnicity, black/African American transgender women have the highest percentage of new HIV-positive test results. Efforts are under way to improve the quality of HIV data collected on transgender communities.
Differences Between HIV-Infected Men and Women in Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes — Six African Countries, 2004–2012
In each country, women comprised 61%–67% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollees. Median CD4 count range was 119–141 cells/µL for men and 137–161 cells/µL for women. Compared with women, a greater percentage of men initiated ART who had World Health Organization (WHO) HIV stage IV disease.
Basic Information on PrEP
Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a prevention option for people who are at high risk of getting HIV. It’s meant to be used consistently, as a pill taken every day, and to be used with other prevention options such as condoms. Find out if PrEP is right for you.
Social Determinants of Health among Adults with Diagnosed HIV Infection in 18 Areas, 2005–2009
The data presented in this HIV surveillance supplemental report are a snapshot of the environment in which people lived at the time of HIV diagnosis. This report presents data tables on diagnoses of HIV infection, organized into 3 main sections: by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics; by social determinants of health and selected characteristics; and by social determinants of health, race/ethnicity, and selected characteristics.
Updated HIV Surveillance in Women Slide Set (through 2011)
Eighteen slides in PowerPoint and PDF - includes diagnosis of HIV Infection among adult and adolescent females, rates of diagnosis, deaths, Stage 3 classifications, and more.
HIV Among Women
As of the end of 2010, one in four people living with a diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were women. Black/African American women and Latinas are disproportionately affected by HIV infection compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Updated fact sheet.
Impact of an Innovative Approach to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV — Malawi, July 2011–September 2012
Using data collected through routine program supervision, this report is the first to summarize Malawi's experience implementing Option B+ under the direction of the Ministry of Health and supported by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
HIV Infection Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk — United States, 2010
Overall, 25.8% of participants had never been tested for HIV until the NHBS survey. Given the high HIV prevalence in this sample, additional research should be conducted to identify culturally appropriate interventions that overcome barriers to HIV testing and increase linkage to care for heterosexuals with low SES in urban areas with high prevalence of AIDS.
Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2007–2010
Among an estimated total of 55,717 older females, 66% of infections were attributed to heterosexual contact and 33% to injection drug use. The estimated prevalence rates per 100,000 population were 476.3 among older males and 113.2 among older females.
HIV Testing Trends in the United States, 2000-2011
The decrease in the percentage (-9.5%) of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months was not significant from 2000 to 2010. The percentage of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months varied by race/ethnicity and age group (Table 7).
HIV Among Youth in the US: Protecting a Generation (10/30/2012)
About 86% of young females got HIV through heterosexual sex and 13% from injection drug use. A coordinated effort by parents, families, schools, community-based organizations, web-based prevention programs, and the government is needed to ensure that all youth understand what puts them at risk for HIV and how to prevent it.
HIV Testing in the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: Data From the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010 (10/30/2012)
Among U.S. women aged 15–44, the percentage ever tested for HIV outside of blood donation increased significantly from 35% in 1995 to 55% in 2002, and to 59% in 2006–2010.
Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics of Adults Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection --- Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2007 (9/30/2012)
Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse was reported by 216 (42%) of the 516 women who reported having anal or vaginal intercourse with a man during the 12 months before the interview. Among 959 women, 244 (25%) reported receiving HIV care at an obstetrics and gynecology clinic during the past 12 months.
Interim Guidance for Clinicians Considering the Use of Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Heterosexually Active Adults (8/30/2012)
This interim guidance includes consideration of new information and addresses pregnancy and safety issues for heterosexually active adults at very high risk for sexual HIV acquisition that were not discussed in the previous interim guidance for the use of PrEP in MSM.
CDC Reports Progress, Innovations and Challenges in Scaling-Up Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission Efforts in Africa (8/30/2012)
Research and analysis from the CDC on Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference reveal mother-to-child transmission has decreased in South Africa, provides insights into new clinical and laboratory data in resource-limited settings, and highlights the application of best practices in Mozambique.
Trends in HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2011 (8/30/2012)
Overall and among female and white students, condom use increased during 1991-2003 and then did not change significantly during 2003-2011.
Let’s Stop HIV Together (8/30/2012)
The campaign gives voice to people living with HIV from all walks of life, alongside their friends and family members. As part of the campaign, these individuals share their personal stories and call on everyone to join the fight against the disease.
Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection or Infected with HIV (6/30/2012)
This report summarizes CDC’s assessment of the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression and the resulting updated guidance. These updated recommendations affirm the previous guidance, which stated that 1) the use of hormonal contraceptives, including combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and implants, is safe for women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV (US MEC category 1), and 2) all women who use contraceptive methods other than condoms should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for sexually transmitted infections.
Diagnoses of HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2010 (3/302012)
This report includes estimated numbers and rates of diagnoses of HIV infection based on data from 51 areas (46 states and 5 U.S. dependent areas) that have had confidential name-based HIV infection reporting. The rates among adults and adolescents in 2010 were 20.0 among males and 6.4 among females.
Updated HIV Surveillance - Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2010) Slide Set (3/302012)
Slides provide information on diagnosis by sex, adult and adolescent, transmission category, race/ethnicity, sexual contact, injection drug use, and more.
African American Women Claiming their Power in Fight Against HIV (3/302012)
Take Charge. Take the Test. messages remind women that they have the power to take charge of their health and protect themselves from HIV through testing, talking openly with their partners about HIV, and insisting on safe sex. Resources for Take Charge. Take the Test
National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness (3/302012)
Be aware of the special risks HIV/AIDS pose for women and girls, and help raise awareness of the disease's impact on them.
Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Among Persons Aged 14–39 Years — United States, 2007–2012
Among sexually active females aged 14–24 years, the population targeted for routine screening, chlamydia prevalence was 4.7% overall and 13.5% among non-Hispanic black females. The 2007–2012 NHANES indicate that an estimated 1.8 million persons aged 14–39 years in the United States have a genital chlamydial infection. Prevalence was highest among adolescents and young adults aged <25 years.
Chlamydia Screening Among Females Aged 15–21 Years — Multiple Data Sources, United States, 1999–2010
Fewer than half of sexually active females aged 15–21 years are screened annually. Although the methods, age groups, and units of measure varied, all the findings support the conclusion that many sexually active adolescent females in the United States were not tested as recommended, even when they visited a physician with symptoms and signs consistent with chlamydial infection.
National Estimate Shows Not Enough Young Women Tested for Chlamydia (3/302012)
Just 38 percent of sexually active young women were screened for chlamydia in the previous year, according to the most recent nationally representative estimate of chlamydia screening among this population conducted by the CDC. CDC recommends annual screening for all sexually active women aged 25 and under.
Update to CDC's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections (8/30/2012)
CDC recommends combination therapy with ceftriaxone 250 mg intramuscularly and either azithromycin 1 g orally as a single dose or doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days as the most reliably effective treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea.
Highlights of the 2012 STD Prevention Conference: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (3/30/2012)
Summaries of research presented at the March 2012 STD Prevention conference focus on:
Self-Reported Chlamydia Testing of Women in the United States, 2006-2008; Trends in Chlamydia Retesting Rates Among Males and Females; How One Simple Clinic Systems-Level Intervention Increased Overall Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Retesting Rates; and Increasing Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Retesting Rates in a Student Health Center Using a Quality Improvement Approach.
National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — National Immunization Survey – Teen, United States, 2011
HPV vaccination has the potential to decrease substantial health and economic burdens caused by HPV-associated diseases, including cancers. If health-care reform implementation expands adolescents' access to primary care and vaccination services, it could facilitate achievement of national vaccination coverage goals and, ultimately, reduce the substantial burden of HPV-associated diseases and cancers in the U.S. population.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents, 2007–2013, and Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Monitoring, 2006–2014 — United States
Vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose of any HPV vaccine increased significantly from 53.8% (2012) to 57.3% (2013) among adolescent girls. Improving practice patterns so that clinicians use every opportunity to recommend HPV vaccines and address questions from parents can help realize reductions in vaccine-preventable infections and cancers caused by HPV.
National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2013
Another analysis of 2013 NIS-Teen data indicates that for adolescent females born in 2000, coverage with at least 1 dose of HPV vaccine before age 13 years could have reached 91.3% if opportunities to administer HPV vaccine when other vaccines were given had not been missed.
Voluntary Recall of One Lot of Gardasil HPV Vaccine
On December 16, 2013 CDC was informed by Merck that the company planned to implement a voluntary recall of one lot (lot J007354) of Gardasil® [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant], due to the potential for a small number of vials to contain glass particles as a result of breakage during the manufacturing process.
Updated HPV Vaccine (Gardasil®) What You Need to Know (3/30/2012)
This updated information sheet answers eight questions: what is HPV, why get vaccinated, who should get this HPV vaccine and when, why should some people not get the vaccine or wait, what are the risks from this vaccine, what if there is a moderate or severe reaction, what is the national vaccine injury compensation program, and how can I learn more.
Are Your Kids Protected from HPV-related Cancers? (1/31/2012)
Protect your sons and daughters from human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer and other diseases associated with HPV by getting them the HPV vaccine. It takes 3 shots to complete the series, so make sure they get all 3 to be protected.
Primary and Secondary Syphilis — United States, 2005–2013
Among women, the reported primary and secondary syphilis rate increased from 0.9 to 1.5 per 100,000 population per year during 2005–2008 and decreased to 0.9 in 2013. This trend occurred among women in all age groups. Rates among white and Hispanic women remained stable; the trend among all women mostly reflected changes in rates among black women (from 4.2 to 7.9 during 2005–2009, decreasing to 4.0 in 2013).
Syphilis Profiles, 2010 (3/8/2012)
The profiles provide an overview of syphilis morbidity in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The profiles consist of figures and tables of data on syphilis from the U.S. states and territories through 2010.
Trichomoniasis: A Neglected Parasitic Infection in the United States
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD); the parasite is passed from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. Women and men with trichomoniasis may notice redness, soreness, or itching of the genitals, burning with urination, or discharge. Without treatment, infection can last for months or even years.
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