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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS)

Below are links to information related to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Click on the below menu or scroll down to view general information and programs, research, statistics and guidelines on this topic.

Research, Recommendations and Guidelines



Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015
These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection.

STD Awareness
Half of all sexually active young people in the United States will get an STD by the time they're 25—and most won't know it.

April is STD Awareness Month
The GYT: Get Yourself Tested campaign is a youth-oriented, empowering social movement to encourage young people to get tested and treated for STDs and HIV.

Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State
Sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when compared to older adults. Acknowledging disparities in STD rates is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to focus on the problem and helping the public health community direct prevention and treatment resources appropriately.

Reported STDs in the United States
This fact sheet summarizes 2013 data on chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis published in CDC's annual report, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2013. The data are based on state and local STD case reports from a variety of private and public sources. They indicate that the majority of cases are reported in non-STD clinic settings, such as private physician offices and health maintenance organizations.

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2013
This report presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States through 2013.


Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2012
The National Profile section contains figures that show trends and the distribution of nationally reportable STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and location for the United States.

Fact Sheet: Reported STDs in the United States 2012 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
Young women face the most serious long-term health consequences of STDs. It is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.


HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States
Sex work can increase a person's risk of becoming infected with or transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by engaging in unsafe sexual behaviors and/or substance use.

Two New Promising Treatment Regimens for Gonorrhea
Two new antibiotic regimens using existing drugs – injectable gentamicin in combination with oral azithromycin and oral gemifloxacin in combination with oral azithromycin – successfully treated gonorrhea infections in a clinical trial conducted by CDC and NIH. The study was conducted to identify new treatment options in the face of growing antibiotic resistance, and findings will be considered for inclusion in future treatment guidelines.

STD Treatment App
CDC announces the launch of its STD Treatment (Tx) Guidelines mobile app, which helps health care providers easily access diagnostic information and the current STD Treatment Guidelines. Providers who use this app will have quick access to information about diagnosing and treating 21 STDs as well as the booklet "A Guide to Taking a Sexual History."

New Study Shows HPV Vaccine Helping Lower HPV Infection Rates in Teen Girls
A new study looking at the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in girls and women before and after the introduction of the HPV vaccine shows a significant reduction in vaccine-type HPV in U.S. teens.

STD Awareness
Use CDC resources to help increase awareness about sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Americans Infographic
This infographic highlights the impact, causes, and consequences of sexually transmitted diseases among young people – and what they can do to protect themselves.

Ready-To-Use STD Curriculum - Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Comprehensive curricular materials that can be downloaded by clinical educators for classroom use. Each module contains a slide presentation, an instructor's guide, a case study, and test questions.

Updated HPV Self-Study STD Modules for Clinicians
A web-based training course designed to guide clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Continuing education credits available.

Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States
CDC's cost estimates reflect the lifetime direct medical cost per case of eight common STIs in the United States: chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and trichomoniasis. The consequences of untreated STIs are often worse for young women.

STD Trends in the United States 2011 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
but young women face the most serious long-term health consequences. Left untreated, these diseases can silently steal a woman's chance to have children later in life; it is estimated that undiagnosed STDs cause 24,000 women to become infertile each year.

Genital HPV Fact Sheet – Updated
This fact sheet is updated as of February 14, 2013.



HIV Testing in the Past Year Among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15–44: 2011–2013
Overall, 19% of persons aged 15–44 in 2011–2013 had been tested for HIV in the past year, including 22% of females and 16% of males. HIV testing in the past year was most common among females aged 25–34 (29%), followed by females aged 15–24 (22%) and females aged 35–44 (16%).

Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among Women
Approximately one in four people living with HIV infection in the United States are women. Most new HIV infections in women are from heterosexual contact (84%). An estimated 88% of women who are living with HIV are diagnosed, but only 32% have the virus under control.

HIV Surveillance in Women (through 2013)
Updated slide sets available on women and other topics.

Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection — United States, 2008–2012
Among black females, the death rate among those with HIV infection attributed to heterosexual contact (17.9) was lower compared with the rate among those black females with infection attributed to injection drug use

Working Together to Stop HIV With The Positive Women's Network – USA
The goals of the Summit were to build leadership skills; address critical policy, advocacy, and research issues; and foster a community among women living with HIV.

2015 National HIV Prevention Conference
This four-day conference will include plenary sessions, workshops, roundtables and poster presentations and is a platform for conference participants to engage in rigorous scientific, programmatic, and technology information exchange.

Get Tested: National HIV and STD Testing
Find free, fast, and confidential testing near you. Also, find what test you need.

Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Characteristics and Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults Compared with Older Adults — Seven African Countries, 2004–2013
Adolescent and young adult ART enrollees were almost exclusively female, commonly pregnant, unmarried, and unemployed. In African countries with generalized epidemics, being young, female, and unemployed increases the risk for voluntary or coerced sexual contact with older, HIV-infected men.

HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV Infection — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 21 U.S. Cities, 2010
The percentages of women who had vaginal sex without a condom were similar among women in all categories of education and income. Anal sex without a condom was more common among those with lower levels of income.

Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014
This document provides: a summary of recent scientific evidence and more that support the recommendations; and updates and expanded recommendations on reproductive health care for women and men, and pregnancy-related services to reduce the risk of sexual or perinatal transmission during recognized pregnancy.

Update HIV Fact Sheets
Find updated information about HIV among African Americans, Latinos, and gay and bisexual men, in English and Spanish.


National Latino AIDS Awareness
Help raise awareness of HIV and AIDS prevention among Hispanics/Latinos living in the United States and its territories. Among Hispanic/Latina, the rate of HIV infection is 4 times as high as that of white females.

Research and Evaluation Agenda for Maternal Health and HIV in Sub-Saharan African
This research and evaluation agenda synthesizes existing knowledge and frames priority research questions that must be answered to improve maternal health in the context of sub-Saharan Africa's HIV pandemic. The agenda also seeks to provide guidance to researchers, programmers, and policymakers about how to advance research and evaluation relevant for policy, programs, and service delivery in the short-and medium-term.

CDC launches HIV Treatment Works, a new Act Against AIDS Campaign
This campaign shows how people living with HIV have overcome barriers to get in care and stay on treatment. On this website, you will find information encouraging people living with HIV to get in care and stay on treatment, as well as resources on how to live well. Hear Angie's Story.

We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time

HIV Infection and Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Injecting Drug Users — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Cities, 2009
Many participants reported having unprotected sex with opposite-sex partners during the past 12 months: 70% of men and 73% of women had unprotected vaginal sex, and 25% of men and 21% of women had unprotected anal sex. More women than men reported having sex in exchange for money or drugs (31% and 18%, respectively).

Get Tested
CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care and that some people with risk factors get tested more often. You should also be tested if you have been sexually assaulted or if you are a woman who is pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations
CDC has issued new guidelines, now available online, for HIV testing of serum or plasma specimens. The updated recommendations allow detection of acute HIV infections that would be missed by antibody tests alone and can expedite entry of patients into care because of reduced turnaround time for test results.

Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Persons Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection — Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2009
Women living with HIV are at an increased risk for developing cervical cancer. The findings in this report are consistent with previous studies showing that 77%–81% of HIV-infected women received cervical cancer screening in the past year and suggest that one of five women with HIV were not screened for cervical cancer.

Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Infection Among Asians in the United States and Dependent Areas
Of the estimated 982 adult and adolescent Asians diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011, 84% (821) were men and 16% (153) were women.

Webcast Archive - CDC's Public Health Grand Rounds, “Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV Infection
This session of Grand Rounds explored the opportunities for using PrEP as another tool to prevent the transmission of HIV and discuss the challenges to effective implementation that must be addressed to make PrEP a success.

Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States
In 2011, less than 1% (81) of 50,199 estimated HIV diagnoses were among NHOPI; 70 diagnoses were in men, and 10* were in women.

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: A Clinical Practice Guideline
These guidelines provide comprehensive information for the use of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection in adults. The document includes sections on published trials of antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis among heterosexual men and women, women who become pregnant or breastfeed while taking PrEP medication, risk behavior assessment for heterosexually active men and women, and recommended indications for PrEP use by heterosexually active men and women.

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States — 2014: Clinical Providers' Supplement
This supplement to the PHS PrEP Clinical Practice Guidelines is intended to provide additional information that may be useful to clinicians providing PrEP. The document includes a section on PrEP during conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding.

PrEP for HIV Prevention
If you think you are at risk of getting HIV, ask your health care provider if PrEP is right for you. Along with other prevention methods like condoms, PrEP can offer good protection against HIV if taken every day.

Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection — United States, 2014
CDC and CSTE have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages. The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria.

Updated Fact Sheet: Oral Sex and HIV Risk
Factors that may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.


New Factsheet: HIV Among Transgender People
Transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. By race/ethnicity, black/African American transgender women have the highest percentage of new HIV-positive test results. Efforts are under way to improve the quality of HIV data collected on transgender communities.

Differences Between HIV-Infected Men and Women in Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes — Six African Countries, 2004–2012
In each country, women comprised 61%–67% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollees. Median CD4 count range was 119–141 cells/µL for men and 137–161 cells/µL for women. Compared with women, a greater percentage of men initiated ART who had World Health Organization (WHO) HIV stage IV disease.

Basic Information on PrEP
Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a prevention option for people who are at high risk of getting HIV. It's meant to be used consistently, as a pill taken every day, and to be used with other prevention options such as condoms. Find out if PrEP is right for you.

Social Determinants of Health among Adults with Diagnosed HIV Infection in 18 Areas, 2005–2009
The data presented in this HIV surveillance supplemental report are a snapshot of the environment in which people lived at the time of HIV diagnosis. This report presents data tables on diagnoses of HIV infection, organized into 3 main sections: by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics; by social determinants of health and selected characteristics; and by social determinants of health, race/ethnicity, and selected characteristics.

Updated HIV Surveillance in Women Slide Set (through 2011)
Eighteen slides in PowerPoint and PDF - includes diagnosis of HIV Infection among adult and adolescent females, rates of diagnosis, deaths, Stage 3 classifications, and more.

HIV Among Women
As of the end of 2010, one in four people living with a diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were women. Black/African American women and Latinas are disproportionately affected by HIV infection compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Updated fact sheet.

Impact of an Innovative Approach to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV — Malawi, July 2011–September 2012
Using data collected through routine program supervision, this report is the first to summarize Malawi's experience implementing Option B+ under the direction of the Ministry of Health and supported by the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

HIV Infection Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk — United States, 2010
Overall, 25.8% of participants had never been tested for HIV until the NHBS survey. Given the high HIV prevalence in this sample, additional research should be conducted to identify culturally appropriate interventions that overcome barriers to HIV testing and increase linkage to care for heterosexuals with low SES in urban areas with high prevalence of AIDS.

Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2007–2010
Among an estimated total of 55,717 older females, 66% of infections were attributed to heterosexual contact and 33% to injection drug use. The estimated prev­alence rates per 100,000 population were 476.3 among older males and 113.2 among older females.

HIV Testing Trends in the United States, 2000-2011
The decrease in the percentage (-9.5%) of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months was not significant from 2000 to 2010. The percentage of pregnant women tested for HIV in the last 12 months varied by race/ethnicity and age group (Table 7).



Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Among Persons Aged 14–39 Years — United States, 2007–2012
Among sexually active females aged 14–24 years, the population targeted for routine screening, chlamydia prevalence was 4.7% overall and 13.5% among non-Hispanic black females. The 2007–2012 NHANES indicate that an estimated 1.8 million persons aged 14–39 years in the United States have a genital chlamydial infection. Prevalence was highest among adolescents and young adults aged <25 years.

Chlamydia Screening Among Females Aged 15–21 Years — Multiple Data Sources, United States, 1999–2010
Fewer than half of sexually active females aged 15–21 years are screened annually. Although the methods, age groups, and units of measure varied, all the findings support the conclusion that many sexually active adolescent females in the United States were not tested as recommended, even when they visited a physician with symptoms and signs consistent with chlamydial infection.



Update to CDC's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections (8/30/2012)
CDC recommends combination therapy with ceftriaxone 250 mg intramuscularly and either azithromycin 1 g orally as a single dose or doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days as the most reliably effective treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea.

Highlights of the 2012 STD Prevention Conference: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (3/30/2012)
Summaries of research presented at the March 2012 STD Prevention conference focus on:
Self-Reported Chlamydia Testing of Women in the United States, 2006-2008; Trends in Chlamydia Retesting Rates Among Males and Females; How One Simple Clinic Systems-Level Intervention Increased Overall Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Retesting Rates; and Increasing Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Retesting Rates in a Student Health Center Using a Quality Improvement Approach.



Use of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: Updated HPV Vaccination Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
During its February 2015 meeting, the ACIP recommended 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs.


National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — National Immunization Survey – Teen, United States, 2011
HPV vaccination has the potential to decrease substantial health and economic burdens caused by HPV-associated diseases, including cancers. If health-care reform implementation expands adolescents' access to primary care and vaccination services, it could facilitate achievement of national vaccination coverage goals and, ultimately, reduce the substantial burden of HPV-associated diseases and cancers in the U.S. population.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents, 2007–2013, and Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Monitoring, 2006–2014 — United States
Vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose of any HPV vaccine increased significantly from 53.8% (2012) to 57.3% (2013) among adolescent girls. Improving practice patterns so that clinicians use every opportunity to recommend HPV vaccines and address questions from parents can help realize reductions in vaccine-preventable infections and cancers caused by HPV.

National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — United States, 2013
Another analysis of 2013 NIS-Teen data indicates that for adolescent females born in 2000, coverage with at least 1 dose of HPV vaccine before age 13 years could have reached 91.3% if opportunities to administer HPV vaccine when other vaccines were given had not been missed.

Voluntary Recall of One Lot of Gardasil HPV Vaccine 
On December 16, 2013 CDC was informed by Merck that the company planned to implement a voluntary recall of one lot (lot J007354) of Gardasil® [Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant], due to the potential for a small number of vials to contain glass particles as a result of breakage during the manufacturing process.



Syphilis Profiles, 2013
The profiles provide an overview of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis and congenital syphilis morbidity in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The profiles consist of figures and tables of data on P&S and congenital syphilis from the U.S. states and territories through 2013.


Primary and Secondary Syphilis — United States, 2005–2013
Among women, the reported primary and secondary syphilis rate increased from 0.9 to 1.5 per 100,000 population per year during 2005–2008 and decreased to 0.9 in 2013. This trend occurred among women in all age groups. Rates among white and Hispanic women remained stable; the trend among all women mostly reflected changes in rates among black women (from 4.2 to 7.9 during 2005–2009, decreasing to 4.0 in 2013).



Trichomoniasis: A Neglected Parasitic Infection in the United States
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD); the parasite is passed from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. Women and men with trichomoniasis may notice redness, soreness, or itching of the genitals, burning with urination, or discharge. Without treatment, infection can last for months or even years.