Pregnancy and Reproductive Health
Below are links to information related to pregnancy, birth defects prevention, and reproductive health. Click on the right menu or scroll down to view programs, research, statistics and guidelines on this topic.
Elements of Youth-Friendly Contraceptive and Reproductive Health Services
Contraceptive and reproductive health services include family planning; contraception (methods to prevent pregnancy); prenatal, obstetric, and postnatal care; and prevention or treatment of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted infections.
Births: Preliminary Data for 2012
The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women age 15-44 years, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3 percent a year from 2007 through 2010.
Prevent Group B Strep App for Obstetric and Neonatal Providers
"Prevent Group B Strep" is a standalone application that provides patient-specific and scenario-specific guidance consistent with the 2010 Guidelines for the Prevention of Perinatal GBS Disease. The app generates customized guidelines based on user input of patient characteristics.
Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women Qs & As
Changes in the immune system, heart, and lungs during pregnancy make pregnant women more prone to severe illness from influenza as well as hospitalizations and even death. Pregnant women with influenza also have a greater chance for serious problems for their unborn babies, including premature labor and delivery.
Use of Family Planning and Related Medical Services among Women Aged 15–44 in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010
In 2006–2010, 43 million women aged 15-44 received a family planning or related medical service in the previous 12 months. A Pap test and a pelvic exam were the most common services received by women in the previous year, followed by receipt of a method of birth control.
Breastfeeding and Early Care and Education
Breastfeeding Support: Close to Mothers is the theme for World Breastfeeding Week 2013. This theme focuses on the importance of all aspects of breastfeeding support.
Saving Mothers, Giving Life Global Health Initiative
A five-part blog series about efforts to save the lives of mothers in Africa through an initiative called Saving Mothers, Giving Life, a U.S. government initiative that addresses the needs of mothers in labor, delivery, and the first 24 hours postpartum – the time period in which an estimated 60 percent of maternal deaths and 50 percent of neonatal deaths occur.
Updated Recommendations for Use of VariZIG — United States, 2013
Patient groups recommended by CDC to receive VariZIG include newborn infants whose mothers have signs and symptoms of varicella around the time of delivery (i.e., 5 days before to 2 days after); hospitalized premature infants born at ≥28 weeks of gestation whose mothers do not have evidence of immunity to varicella; hospitalized premature infants born at <28 weeks of gestation or who weigh ≤1,000 g at birth, regardless of their mothers' evidence of immunity to varicella; pregnant women without evidence of immunity; and Immunocompromised patients without evidence of immunity.
Births: Final Data for 2011
The number of births declined 1 percent in 2011 to 3,953,590. The general fertility rate also declined 1 percent, to 63.2 per 1,000 women 15 to 44 years. The teenage birth rate fell 8 percent to 31.3 per 1,000.
Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996–2011
After 12 years of consecutive increases, the preliminary cesarean delivery rate among singleton births was unchanged from 2009 to 2011 (31.3%). Cesarean delivery rates decreased more than 5% among births at 38 weeks of gestation, but increased 4% among births at 39 weeks.
Cytomegalovirus: Protect Your Baby
Pregnant women can take steps to reduce their risk of exposure to cytomegalovirus, or CMV.
Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates through December 2012
The provisional count of births in the United States for the 12-month period ending December 2012 was 3,958,000, essentially unchanged from the 3,953,593 births (preliminary total) for 2011. The trend in the number of births was down, having declined steadily from the historic high of 4,316,233 in 2007 through 2011 but slowing from 2010 to 2011, and is essentially flat from 2011 to 2012.
Responsive Design, Weighting, and Variance Estimation in 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth
The report shows fieldwork results, including response rates, and the results of weighting, imputation, and variance estimation procedures. The report should be useful to users of the 2006-2010 public-use data file and to survey methodologists who wish to learn how the NSFG was conducted.
Teen Birth Rates Drop, But Disparities Persist
Improve the lives of young people—strengthen communities by reducing teen pregnancy and eliminating disparities. Learn more about CDC’s communitywide initiatives to address this issue.
U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: Adapted from the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2nd Edition
Includes recommendations that address a select group of common, yet sometimes controversial or complex, issues regarding initiation and use of specific contraceptive methods. Four new topics are addressed, including the effectiveness of female sterilization, extended use of combined hormonal methods and bleeding problems, starting regular contraception after use of emergency contraception, and determining when contraception is no longer needed.
Adjusting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Sample Weights for Women of Childbearing Age
Maternal risk factors have been tabulated for women of childbearing age using defined age ranges. When calculating statistics for women of childbearing age, the decision to adjust for age or not to adjust appears to be more important than the choice of adjustment method.
Declines in State Teen Birth Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin
Teen birth rates fell steeply in the United States from 2007 through 2011, resuming a decline that began in 1991 but was briefly interrupted in 2006 and 2007.
Program Increases Teen Contraceptive Use
Learn about a clinic-based program for adolescent girls that has improved contraceptive use and other health-related behaviors through personal case management and peer leadership opportunities.
Recent Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States, 2005–2011
Following a plateau from 2000 through 2005, the U.S. infant mortality rate declined 12% from 2005 through 2011. Declines for neonatal and postneonatal mortality were similar. From 2005 through 2011, infant mortality declined 16% for non-Hispanic black women and 12% for non-Hispanic white women.
Vital Signs: Repeat Births Among Teens — United States, 2007–2010
Nearly 1 in 5 teen births is a repeat birth. Learn what you can do to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy. Disparities in repeat teen births exist by race/ethnicity, with the highest percentages found among American Indian/Alaska Natives (21.6%), Hispanics (20.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (20.4%) and lowest among non-Hispanic whites (14.8%).
Vital Signs Issue: Preventing Repeat Teen Births
Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, more than 365,000 teens, ages 15–19, gave birth in 2010. Teen pregnancy and childbearing can carry high health, emotional, social, and financial costs for both teen mothers and their children.
Immunization and Pregnancy Vaccines Flyer
The flyer shows which vaccines you may need before, during, and after pregnancy.
Action Plan for the National Initiative on Preconception Health and Health Care (PCHHC)
The Action Plan for the National Initiative on Preconception Health and Health Care (PCHHC) 2012–2014 outlines goals, objectives, strategies, and action steps that can: 1) move science into clinical practice; 2) market messages and images that will raise consumer awareness of preconception care; 3) inform policy development, implementation, and innovation; 4) guide public health and prevention programs in efforts to improve the health of women, infants, and families; and 5) monitor the processes and impact of preconception and interconception care at the local, state, tribal, territorial, and national levels.
Immediate Postpartum Insertion of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception
Many repeat births could be prevented through postpartum use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) such as IUDs and implants. Counseling women during prenatal visits about postpartum contraception and offering women LARC in the hospital after delivery make it easier for women to avoid unintended pregnancy.
Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)
Includes two sections on Safety of Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Pregnancy, and Vaccinating during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.
Public Health Grand Rounds Video: Reducing Teen Pregnancy in the United States
Prevention of teen pregnancy requires broad-based efforts including evidence-based sexual health education, support for parents in talking with their children about pregnancy prevention and other aspects of sexual and reproductive health, and ready access to effective and affordable contraception for teens who are sexually active.
Clinical Guidelines for Occupational Lifting in Pregnancy: Evidence Summary and Provisional Recommendations
Available in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, available online March 1, 2013. This report proposes criteria to guide decisions by medical providers about permissible weights for lifting tasks performed at work over the course of an uncomplicated pregnancy.
Use of Emergency Contraception Among Women Aged 15-44: United States, 2006-2010
Young adult women aged 20-24 were most likely to have ever used emergency contraception; about one in four had done so (23%).
New Tools Available for CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010
CDC has developed several new tools (app, summary charts, MEC Wheel) to assist health care providers in accessing and using the U.S. MEC.
Contraceptive Methods Women Have Ever Used: United States, 1982-2010
In 2006-2010, the most common methods that women or their partners had ever used were: the male condom (93%), the pill (82%), withdrawal (60%), and the injectable, Depo-Provera (23%).
Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women — Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012
These updated recommendations on use of Tdap in pregnant women aim to optimize strategies for preventing pertussis morbidity and mortality in infants.
Helpful Tips for Pregnant Women and New Moms
If you are pregnant or have a new baby, your life can be filled with joy and new challenges. Here are a few tools to help keep you and your baby safe and healthy.
Show Your Love Campaign
Show Your Love is a national campaign designed to improve the health of women and babies by promoting preconception health and healthcare. The campaign’s main goal is to increase the number of women who plan their pregnancies and engage in healthy behaviors before becoming pregnant.
Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths (Podcast) (10/30/2012)
Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.
ACIP Recommends Tdap Immunization for Pregnant Women (10/30/2012)
The Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices voted to recommend that providers of prenatal care implement a Tdap immunization program for all pregnant women.
Pre-Existing Diabetes and Pregnancy: Potential Effects of Uncontrolled Diabetes Before and During Pregnancy (10/30/2012)
This page explains the importance of keeping diabetes under control during pregnancy and the effects of uncontrolled diabetes on pregnancy and newborns, and ways to control blood sugar to help prevent problems.
Current Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2006–2010, and Changes in Patterns of Use Since 1995 (10/30/2012)
Sixty-two percent of women of reproductive age are currently using contraception. Of women using a contraceptive method in the month of the interview, the most common methods used are the pill (28%, or 10.6 million women) and female sterilization (27%, or 10.2 million women).
Births: Preliminary Data for 2011 (10/30/2012)
The 2011 preliminary number of US births was 3,953,593, 1 percent less (or 45,793 fewer) births than in 2010; the general fertility rate (63.2 per 1,000 women age 15-44 years) declined to the lowest rate ever reported for the United States.
Preconception Care and Health care Resource Center (9/30/2012)
The Preconception Health and Health Care Resource Center (the Resource Center) is a comprehensive web directory of hyperlinks to tools and resources designed to advance the health of men and women of reproductive age.
Lead Poisoning in Pregnant Women Who Used Ayurvedic Medications from India - New York City, 2011–2012 (8/30/2012)
Foreign-born pregnant women might be at increased risk for lead poisoning. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications.
Breastfeeding Report Card-United States, 2012 (8/30/2012)
This year’s Breastfeeding Report Card reveals that hospital support for breastfeeding has improved. Since 2009 47 states and the District of Columbia have increased their score on CDC’s Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey. Births at Baby-Friendly hospitals have increased from 1.93 percent in 2008 to 6.22 percent in 2012.
Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep! (8/30/2012)
Protect your baby from group B strep. If you're 35-37 weeks pregnant, ask your doctor or nurse about a group B strep test.
Intended and Unintended Births in the United States: 1982-2010 (8/30/2012)
About 37% of births in the United States were unintended at the time of conception. Large differences exist between groups in the percentage of births that are unintended.
Preconception Health Indicators Among Women - Texas, 2002-2010 (8/30/2012)
The Texas Department of State Health Services analyzed PRAMS responses regarding preconception health of Texas women who delivered a live-born infant during 2002−2010. Among women who responded, 48% had no health-care insurance coverage before pregnancy and 46% reported an unintended pregnancy.
Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep! (8/30/2012)
Protect your baby from group B strep. If you're 35-37 weeks pregnant, ask your doctor or nurse about a group B strep test.
Cytomegalovirus: Protect Your Baby (8/30/2012)
In the U.S. 1 in 750 children have disabilities due to congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Learn how to protect your baby from CMV.
Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease - Virginia, 2010 (8/30/2012)
This report describes the first case of congenital Chagas disease in the United States confirmed by CDC and highlights the importance of raising awareness of Chagas disease among health-care providers.
Cohort Fertility Tables for All, White, and Black Women: United States, 2006-2009 (8/30/2012)
These tables present detailed fertility data for cohorts of women as they pass through their childbearing years and include central birth rates, cumulative birth rates, birth distributions, and birth probabilities.
Births: Final Data for 2010 (8/30/2012)
The number of births declined to 3,999,386 in 2010, 3 percent less than in 2009. The teenage birth rate fell 10 percent to 34.2 per 1,000.
Prevalence and Timing of Oral Sex with Opposite-sex Partners Among Females and Males Aged 15–24 Years: United States, 2007–2010 (8/30/2012)
About two-thirds of females (66%) and males (65%) aged 15–24 years in 2007–2010 had ever had oral sex.
Estimated Pregnancy Rates and Rates of Pregnancy Outcomes for the United States, 1990-2008 (6/30/2012)
In 2008, an estimated 6,578,000 pregnancies resulted in 4,248,000 live births, 1,212,000 induced abortions, and 1,118,000 fetal losses. Pregnancy rates have declined significantly for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic teenagers.
Breastfeeding Action Guides for Health Care Settings (6/30/2012)
Three new action guides: Doctors in Action, Nurses in Action and Health Care Leaders in Action.
Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection or Infected with HIV (6/30/2012)
This report summarizes CDC’s assessment of the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression and the resulting updated guidance. These updated recommendations affirm the previous guidance, which stated that 1) the use of hormonal contraceptives, including combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and implants, is safe for women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV (US MEC category 1), and 2) all women who use contraceptive methods other than condoms should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for sexually transmitted infections.
Ectopic Pregnancy Mortality - Florida, 2009-2010 (3/8/2012)
This report summarizes investigation results, which identified 11 ectopic pregnancy deaths from 2009-2010 and 13 deaths from the 10-year period 1999-2008. The increase in ectopic mortality appears to be associated with illicit drug use and delays in seeking health care.
Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through June 2011 (3/8/2012)
The provisional count of births in the United States for the 12-month period ending June 2011 was 3,978,000, which was 2 percent lower than the provisional count of 4,057,000 for the 12-month period ending June 2010.
Protecting Babies from Flu (A Minute of Health with CDC Podcast) (3/8/2012)
Because expectant mothers are at increased risk for severe complications from influenza, CDC recommends they get an annual flu vaccine. This podcast discusses the importance of the flu vaccine for those who are pregnant.
Prevent Infections in Pregnancy (3/8/2012)
Take steps to help keep your unborn baby safe. These 10 tips can help you prevent infections. You won't always know if you have an infection-sometimes you won't even feel sick.
Are You Pregnant or a New Mom? (3/8/2012)
Get free text messages with tips for a healthy pregnancy and baby. Send our new e-card!
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Quiz (3/8/2012)
Take this interactive quiz, available in English and Spanish, to test your knowledge about the facts of teen pregnancy. Share the quiz with your friends and coworkers, post it on your Web site or share it on your social media networks!
Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - 29 States and New York City, 2009-10 Season (3/8/2012)
Results from PRAMS for the 2009-10 influenza season indicate that trivalent seasonal and monovalent pH1N1 vaccination coverage levels among women pregnant during the season were higher than previous seasonal rates, were highly associated with a health-care provider offer or recommendation for vaccination during pregnancy, and varied substantially among states.
Home Births in the United States: 1990-2009 (1/31/2012)
After a decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of U.S. births that occurred at home increased by 29%, from 0.56% of births in 2004 to 0.72% in 2009.
Three Decades of Twin Births in the United States, 1980-2009 (1/31/2012)
The number of twin births more than doubled from 1980 through 2009, rising from 68,339 to more than 137,000 births in each year from 2006 to 2009. In 1980, 1 in every 53 babies born in the United States was a twin, compared with 1 in every 30 births in 2009.
Folic Acid Helps Prevent Neural Tube Defects (1/31/2012)
If a woman consumes 400 micrograms of folic acid every day, she can help prevent birth defects of the brain and spine. Get 400 micrograms of folic acid every day before and during pregnancy.
Medication Use During Pregnancy (1/31/2012)
The safety of most medications taken by pregnant women is unknown and dependent on many factors. Talk with your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy.
Reproductive Health Assessment After Disaster Toolkit (1/31/2012)
The Reproductive Health Assessment After Disaster Toolkit provides a set of tools to assess the reproductive health needs of women aged 15-44 affected by natural and man-made disasters. (Funding and scientific technical assistance provided by CDC).
Prepregnancy Contraceptive Use Among Teens with Unintended Pregnancies Resulting in Live Births - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008 (1/31/2012)
This report indicates that teens from 19 states who delivered a live infant from an unintended pregnancy have much lower rates of contraceptive use when compared with all sexually active teens.
Smoking Cessation for Pregnancy and Beyond (12/29/2011)
This is an interactive Web-based program designed for health care professionals to hone their skills in assisting pregnant women to quit smoking. Up to 4 hours of continuing education credits can be earned by completing the practicum.
Ticket for Two - International Travel during Pregnancy (12/29/2011)
Stacie Dunkle talks about traveling while pregnant. Also, she wants to hear from you. Have you traveled during pregnancy or had to pass on a trip because you were expecting? How has being a parent changed your career?
Diabetes and Pregnancy (12/8/2011)
Learn how to control your blood sugar before and during pregnancy to help prevent birth defects and other poor outcomes, such as miscarriages or stillbirths.
Births: Preliminary Data for 2010 (12/8/2011)
The preliminary number of US births was 4,000,279 in 2010, 3 percent less than in 2009; the general fertility rate (64.1 per 1,000 women age 15-44 years) and the total fertility rate (1,932.0 births per 1,000 women) also declined in 2010.
Teen Birth Rate Hit Record Low in 2010: CDC Report Also Notes First Decline in C-section Rate in Over a Decade (12/8/2011)
The birth rate for U.S. teens aged 15-19 years hit a record low in 2010. The report also documented the first decline in the rate of cesarean deliveries since 1996. In 2010, the cesarean section rate was 32.8, down slightly from 32.9 in 2009.
Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2008 (12/8/2011)
A total of 825,564 abortions were reported to CDC for 2008. Women aged 20-29 years accounted for 57.1% of all abortions reported in 2008.
Births: Final Data for 2009 (12/8/2011)
The number of births declined to 4,130,665 in 2009, 3 percent less than in 2008. The teenage birth rate fell 6 percent to 39.1 per 1,000. This report presents 2009 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics.
Update: New Recommendations for Mefloquine Use in Pregnancy (12/8/2011)
CDC now recommends the antimalarial drug mefloquine for pregnant women both as a malaria treatment option and as an option to prevent malaria infection for all trimesters.
Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot 12/8/2011
If you're pregnant, a flu shot is your best protection against serious illness from the flu. A flu shot can protect pregnant women, their unborn babies, and even their babies after birth.
Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (11/3/2011)
This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females aged 15-19 in the United States in 2006-2010 from the National Survey of Family Growth.
Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women and Persons Who Have or Anticipate Having Close Contact with an Infant Aged< 12 Months-Advisory Committee on Immunization Practies (ACIP), 2011 (11/3/2011)
On June 22, 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) in unvaccinated pregnant women and updated recommendations on cocooning and special situations. This report summarizes data considered and conclusions made by ACIP and provides guidance for implementing its recommendations.
CDC Announces New Effort to Boost Number of Baby-Friendly Hospitals (11/3/2011)
CDC has awarded nearly $6 million over three years to the National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality to help hospitals nationwide make quality improvements to maternity care to better support mothers and babies to be able to breastfeed. The goal of the project is to accelerate the number of U.S. Baby-Friendly hospitals.
A Message to Health Care Professionals: Teen Pregnancy (11/3/2011)
Teens urge health care professionals across the nation to talk to their teen patients about pregnancy and contraception to help improve the lives of all young people.
Infertility Frequently Asked Questions (9/16/2011)
Answers to sixteen frequently asked questions on infertility in men and women, causes, risk, when to seek help, treatment, and more.
Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, 2010-11 Influenza Season (9/16/2011)
Results from this survey indicate that the record high influenza vaccination levels among pregnant women reported for the previous influenza season (2009-10) were sustained during the 2010-11 season.
National and State Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13 Through 17 Years - United States, 2010 (9/16/2011)
In 2010, vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13 through 17 years increased from coverage in 2009; however, the percentage-point increase in ≥1 dose of HPV among females (4.4 points) was less than half the increase observed for ≥1 dose of Tdap (13.1) and ≥1 dose of MenACWY (9.1).
Pregnant Women and Flu - Free Materials (9/16/2011)
Tools (flyers, brochures, article, posters, fact sheet) developed specifically for pregnant women and their providers. Free materials also available at /flu/freeresources/ .
Childbearing Differences Among Three Generations of U.S. Women (9/16/2011)
This report presents data on three selected birth cohorts of women representing generations born at 25-year intervals in 1910, 1935, and 1960, close to the average length of a generation in the United States.
Vital Signs: Hospital Practices to Support Breastfeeding -- United States, 2007 and 2009 (9/16/2011)
Most U.S. hospitals have policies and practices that do not conform to international recommendations for best practices in maternity care and interfere with mothers' abilities to breastfeed.
Hospitals Need Better Maternity Care Practices (9/16/2011)
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative recommends 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Find out how better maternity care practices can help mothers start and continue breastfeeding.
Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through 2010 (6/15/2011)
The broad-based decline in births and fertility rates from 2007 through 2009 is now well-documented. An earlier NCHS Health E-Stat showed the overall birth count and fertility rate continuing to decline through the first 6 months of 2010. This report updates and extends the trend through December 2010.
Liquid-based Cytology Test Use by Office-based Physicians: United States, 2006-2007 (6/15/2011)
In 2006-2007, liquid-based cytology (LBC) was used in approximately 75% of Pap tests for which the type of cytology was known. LBC was less likely to be used for Medicare patients than for privately insured patients, although LBC use did not vary significantly according to the other patient or practice characteristics examined. The high percentage of LBC use by office-based physicians in 2006-2007 confirms the widespread use of this screening method among primary care providers, as has been reported in the literature.
Emerging Issues in the Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of Influenza among Pregnant Women in the United States, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol 204, No. 6 June, 2011, Supplement. (6/15/2011)
This 164-page supplement with 23 papers in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology entitled “Emerging Issues in the Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of Influenza among Pregnant Women in the United States”, contains a wide variety of papers summarizing some of what was learned about influenza in pregnancy from the recent pandemic.
Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Engaging Communities (5/10/2011)
CDC works to improve the lives of young people and strengthen communities by reducing teen pregnancy. Learn about CDC's communitywide initiative and what you can do.
Teen Pregnancy Social Media Tools and Messages (5/10/2011)
Find free, easy-to-use communication tools that can help expand the reach of your health messages and help increase public engagement.
Protect Your Baby from Group B Strep Podcast (5/10/2011)
In this podcast, Tarayn Fairlie, a pediatrician and mom, talks about group B strep in pregnant women, the serious effects it can have on newborns, how you can find out if you have group B strep bacteria in your body and what to do to prevent spreading it to your infant.
Diabetes and Pregnancy (5/10/2011)
Control your blood sugar before and during pregnancy to help prevent birth defects and other poor outcomes, such as miscarriage or stillbirth.
Surveillance of Health Status in Minority Communities - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. (REACH U.S.) Risk Factor Survey, United States, 2009 (5/10/2011)
The median percentage of women aged ≥40 years who reported having had a mammogram during the previous 2 years ranged from 72.7% in American Indian communities to 80.7% in black communities. The median percentage of women with an intact uterine cervix who reported having had a Pap smear screening during the previous 3 years ranged from 74.4% in Asian and other Pacific Islanders communities to 85.0% in black communities.
Preventing and Managing Chronic Disease to Improve the Health of Women and Infants (4/20/2011)
This fact sheet highlights the burden and effects of chronic disease and related risk factors on reproductive aged women and on their pregnancy outcomes. It also includes steps women can take to improve their health, related CDC activities, and additional resources.
Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia Use During Labor: 27-state Reporting Area, 2008 (4/20/2011)
Overall, 61 percent of women who had a singleton birth in a vaginal delivery in the 27 states in 2008 received epidural or spinal anesthesia; non-Hispanic white women received epidural or spinal anesthesia more often (69 percent) than other racial groups. Among Hispanic origin groups, Puerto Rican women were most likely to receive epidural or spinal anesthesia (68 percent). Levels increased with increasing maternal educational attainment.
Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2009 (4/20/2011)
In 2009, a total 19 cases of malaria were reported among pregnant women and three congenital malaria cases. Of the 19 cases in pregnant women, two had severe malaria, and none reported adherence to the chemoprophylaxis drug regimen.
Vital Signs: Teen Pregnancy -- United States, 1991-2009 (4/20/2011)
Overall, in 2009, approximately 410,000 teens aged 15-19 years gave birth in the United States, a rate of 39.1 births per 1,000 females. This report describes trends in birth rates among U.S. teens aged 15-19 years and percentages of high school students having sexual intercourse and using contraceptives.
Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy in the U.S. (4/20/2011)
Prevention efforts work by teaching teens how and why to delay starting sex and steps that they need to take if they become sexually active. Key components include sex education that has been shown to work, support for parent-teen communication about preventing pregnancy, and ready access to sexual and reproductive health services. Sexually active teens should have access to effective and affordable birth control.
Smoking Early in Pregnancy Raises Risk of Heart Defects in Infants (3/30/2011)
The study found an association between tobacco exposure and certain types of defects such as those that obstruct the flow of blood from the right side of the heart into the lungs (right ventricular outflow tract obstructions) and openings between the upper chambers of the heart (atrial septal defects). The study is in the Feb. 28 issue of the journal Pediatrics.
Maternal, Pregnancy, and Birth Characteristics of Asians and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders - King County, Washington, 2003-2008 (3/15/2011)
These results identify important differences and support routine presentation of health data separately for Asians and NHPIs.
Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2007 (3/15/2011)
A total of 827,609 abortions were reported to CDC for 2007. Women aged 20-29 years accounted for 56.9% of all abortions in 2007 and for the majority of abortions during the entire period of analysis (1998-2007).
Guidelines for the Identification and Management of Lead Exposure in Pregnant and Lactating Women (3/15/2011)
The guidelines are based on scientific data and practical considerations regarding preventing lead exposure during pregnancy, assessment and blood lead testing during pregnancy, medical and environmental management to reduce fetal exposure, breastfeeding, and follow up of infants and children exposed to lead in utero.
U.S. Teenage Birth Rate Resumes Decline (3/15/2011)
The teenage birth rate declined 8 percent in the United States from 2007 through 2009, reaching a historic low at 39.1 births per 1,000 teens aged 15-19 years.
Text4baby for Pregnant Women and New Moms (3/15/2011)
Pregnant women and new moms can receive free text messages each week with information for a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.
Methods Available to Patients of Office-Based Physicians and Title
X Clinics - United States, 2009-2010 (1/24/2011)
This report summarizes results of a survey, which indicated that a greater proportion of Title X clinic providers than office-based physicians offered on-site availability of a number of methods, including injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and combined oral contraceptive pills. Less than maximal use of long-acting, reversible contraceptive methods, including IUDs and contraceptive implants, might be a contributing factor to high unintended pregnancy rates in the United States.
from the Field: Congenital Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis - New York (1/24/2011)
Mother-to-child transmission of LCMV during pregnancy can cause abortion, chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, or microencephaly, and can result in life-long vision deficits or neurologic impairment. Clinically, congenital LCMV infection closely resembles perinatal infections caused by the pathogens grouped under the TORCH acronym: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus.
Use During Pregnancy (1/24/2011)
This year, National Birth Defects Prevention Month focuses on medication use and pregnancy. Learn what you should do if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy.
Take 400 mcg of Folic
Acid Today! (1/24/2011)
Every year, about 300,000 children around the world including the U.S. are born with neural tube defects. If women take 400 mcg of folic acid daily, before and during pregnancy, they can help prevent them.
Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary
and Fertility Clinic Reports (1/10/2011)
In this report 148,055 ART cycles were performed at 436 reporting clinics in the United States during 2008, resulting in 46,326 live births (deliveries of one or more living infants) and 61,426 infants.
Preliminary Data for 2009 (1/10/2011)
This report presents preliminary data for 2009 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. The 2009 preliminary number of US births declined 3 percent from 2008, to 4,131,019.
and Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women in the United States, 2003-2008 (1/10/2011)
In general, U.S. pregnant women have low levels of lead in their blood. Pregnant women have lower mercury and lead levels than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, mercury levels, but not lead levels, increase with age.
Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through June 2010 (1/10/2011)
The provisional count of births in the United States for the 12-month period ending with June 2010 fell 3 percent to 4,055,000 from the provisional count for the 12-month period ending with June 2009. This continues a decline in the number of births from an all-time high of 4,316,233 in 2007.
Seasonal Influenza and 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - 10 States, 2009-10 Influenza Season (1/7/2011)
Because pregnant women are at increased risk for severe disease associated with influenza infection, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for women while pregnant, regardless of trimester.
Don’t Smoke (12/7/2010)
Quitting smoking can be hard, but it is one of the best ways a woman can protect herself and her baby's health. For free help, call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669).
Need a Flu Shot! (10/29/10)
If you're pregnant, a flu shot is your best protection against serious illness from the flu. A flu shot can protect pregnant women, their unborn babies, and even their babies after birth.
Action Plan for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Infertility (10/29/10)
The goal of the National Action Plan is to promote, preserve, and restore the ability of people who live in the United States to have a healthy child. This includes helping women to conceive, carry a pregnancy to term, and have a live birth. It also seeks to reduce the burden of infertility and impaired fecundity in the United States through prevention, early detection, and treatment of conditions that can lead to infertility.
in Teenage Birth Rates in the United States (10/29/10)
This report examines disparities in teenage birth rates by state and among the largest racial and ethnic population groups. In 2008, state-specific teenage birth rates varied widely, from less than 25.0 per 1,000 15-19 year olds to more than 60.0. Rates for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic teenagers were uniformly higher in the Southeast and lower in the Northeast and California.
Pregnancy Prevention: Integrating Services, Programs, and Strategies
through Communitywide Initiatives (10/29/10)
The national organizations will provide training and technical assistance to all funded organizations within this initiative. The state- and community-based grantees will provide training and technical assistance to youth-serving organizations and partners to implement the Key Components.
Teenagers About Sex in the United States (9/30/10)
Most teenagers received formal sex education before they were 18 (96% of female and 97% of male teenagers). Female teenagers were more likely than male teenagers to report first receiving instruction on birth control methods in high school (47% compared with 38%).
Report Card-United States, 2010 (9/30/10)
The most recent CDC data show that 3 out of every 4 new mothers in the U.S. now starts out breastfeeding. The U.S. has now met the Healthy People 2010 national objective for breastfeeding initiation. However, rates of breastfeeding at 6 and 12 months as well as rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 3 and 6 months remain stagnant and low.
in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing,
This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females 15-19 years of age in the United States in 2006-2008 from the National Survey of Family Growth.
S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 (7/30/10)
This guidance comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions.
CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and
Care (mPINC) (7/30/10)
Results from the survey indicate that birth facilities in most states are not providing maternity care that is fully supportive of breastfeeding. In addition, the southern region of the U.S., typically the region with the lowest breastfeeding rates, has the lowest maternity care practices scores.
During Pregnancy (7/30/10)
Simple steps can help keep your unborn baby safe.
Fertility Tables for All, White and Black Women: United States, 1960-2005 (7/30/10)
This report presents fertility data for cohorts of all, white and black women, as they pass through their childbearing years of 14 through 49, includes the central birth rate, cumulative birth rate, and birth probability by age and live-birth order.
Health Needs and Receipt of Services During Pregnancy - Oklahoma
and South Carolina, 2004-2007 (7/30/10)
This report summarizes the results of an analysis, which indicated substantial differences between perceived need and receipt of 1) assistance in reducing violence in the home, 2) counseling information for family or personal problems, 3) help to quit smoking, 4) help with an alcohol or drug problem, and 5) dental care.
of Contraception in the United States: 1982-2008 (5/28/10)
This report presents national estimates of contraceptive use and method choice based on the 1982, 1995, 2002, and 2006-2008 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Contraceptive use is a major factor affecting birth and pregnancy rates as well as the rate of unintended pregnancy.
Births on the Decline in the United States? Recent Data From the
National Vital Statistics System (5/28/10)
Preliminary 2007 and 2008 birth certificate data reveal a shift in the long upward trend in preterm births. This report describes this change.
and Pregnancy (5/28/10)
Controlling diabetes before and during pregnancy will help prevent birth defects and other poor outcomes, such as miscarriage or stillbirth.
Should Know about Alcohol and Pregnancy (4/30/10)
CDC urges pregnant women not to drink alcohol any time during pregnancy. There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. There is also no safe time during pregnancy to drink and no safe kind of alcohol.
H1N1 and Pregnancy (4/30/10)
This document provides updated information on pregnancy as a risk factor for serious 2009 H1N1-related complications based on findings from a recent study.
Preliminary Data for 2008 (pdf) (4/30/10)
The preliminary number of 2008 US births was 4,251,095, down nearly 2 percent from the 2007 peak; the 2008 general fertility rate (68.7 per 1,000) also declined. The number and rate of births decreased for the three largest race and Hispanic origin groups in 2008. The birth rate for US teenagers 15-19 fell 2 percent in 2008 to 41.5 per 1,000, reversing a brief two-year increase that had halted the long-term decline from 1991 to 2005.
and Characteristics of Home and Other Out-of-Hospital Births in the
United States, 1990–2006 (4/15/10)
This report examines trends and characteristics of out-of-hospital and home births in the United States. In 2006, there were 38,568 out-of-hospital births in the United States, including 24,970 home births and 10,781 births occurring in a freestanding birthing center.
and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration,
by State - National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004-2008 (4/15/10)
This report found that non-Hispanic blacks had a lower prevalence of breastfeeding initiation than non-Hispanic whites in all but two states; Hispanics generally had lower prevalence than non-Hispanic whites in western states and higher in eastern states.
Trends in Cesarean Delivery in the United States (4/15/10)
The cesarean rate rose by 53% from 1996 to 2007, reaching 32%, the highest rate ever reported in the United States. From 1996 to 2007, the cesarean rate increased for mothers in all age and racial and Hispanic origin groups.
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Pregnant Women Requiring Intensive Care -- New
York City, 2009 (4/1/10)
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted surveillance for cases in pregnant women requiring intensive care. The findings indicated that, during 2009, 16 pregnant women and one who was postpartum were admitted to intensive-care units. Two women died. Of the 17 women, 12 had no risk factors for severe influenza complications other than pregnancy, and only one woman received antiviral treatment within 2 days of symptom onset.
and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration, by State - National
Immunization Survey, United States, 2004--2008 (4/1/10)
This report found that non-Hispanic blacks had a lower prevalence of breastfeeding initiation than non-Hispanic whites in all but two states; Hispanics generally had lower prevalence than non-Hispanic whites in western states and higher in eastern states. Most states were not meeting the HP2010 targets for breastfeeding duration for any racial/ethnic group. Breastfeeding should be promoted through comprehensive clinical and social supports starting in pregnancy, and including the birth, delivery, and postpartum periods.
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