Lujo hemorrhagic fever (LUHF) is caused by Lujo virus, a single-stranded virus of the Arenaviridae family. The limited clinical information about LUHF comes from a small, nosocomial cluster of hemorrhagic disease in September-October 2008 involving 5 patients in South Africa. The case fatality rate was 80% (4/5 cases).
The first patient, whose source of infection was unknown, was the source of infection of 3 health care workers. A tertiary infection occurred in a fourth healthcare worker who received ribavirin treatment and was the only survivor. Lujo virus is the second African hemorrhagic fever virus described. (Lassa virus was identified in 1969.)