Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

References

Reduce Injuries Associated with Motor Vehicle Crashes


Baker SP, Chen L, Li G. 2007. Nationwide review of graduated driver licensing. Washington DC: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Beck LF, Paulozzi LJ, Davidson SC. 2007. Pedestrian fatalities, Atlanta metropolitan statistical area and United States, 2000-2004. Journal of Safety Research 38(6):613-616.

Beck LF, Shults RA. 2009.Seat belt use in States and Territories with primary and secondary laws—United States, 2006. Journal of Safety Research 40:469-472.

Bernard SJ, Paulozzi LJ, Wallace DL. 2007. Fatal injuries among children by race and ethnicity--United States, 1999-2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summary 56(5):1-16.

[CDC]. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. National Child Passenger Safety Week–February 14–20, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48(4):83-84.

Chen, L, Baker SP, Li G. 2006. Graduated driver licensing programs and fatal crashes of 16-year-old drivers: A national evaluation. Pediatrics 118(1):56-62.

Dingus TA, et al. 2006. The 100‐car naturalistic driving study: Phase II – results of the 100‐car field experiment. (Interim Project Report for DOT Report No. HS-810-593). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

[DOT]. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2005. Without motorcycle helmets, we all pay the price. Washington DC: NHTSA.

[DOT]. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2008. Traffic Safety Facts Laws: Strengthening Seat Belt Use Laws. (DOT Publication No. HS-810-890W). Washington DC: NHTSA.

[DOT]. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2009. Traffic Safety Facts 2008: Motorcycle helmet use laws. Washington DC: NHTSA.

Elder RW, Shults RA, Sleet DA, et al. 2002. Effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints for reducing alcohol-involved crashes. Traffic Injury Prevention 3:266-74.

Farmer C, Williams A. 2005. Effect on fatality risk of changing from secondary to primary seat belt enforcement. Journal of Safety Research 36(2):189-194.

Friedman LS, Hedeker D, Elihu D, Richter D. 2009. Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 99:1626-31.

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Motor vehicle-related injury prevention: Reducing Alcohol-impaired Driving. [updated: 2010 March 8; accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/index.html

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving: ignition interlocks. [updated: 2010 March 8; accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/ignitioninterlocks.html

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Use of child safety seats: laws mandating use. [updated: 2010 March 8; accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/childsafetyseats/mandatinguse.html

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Use of safety belts: laws mandating use. [updated: 2010 March 8; accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/safetybelts/lawsmandatinguse.html

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Use of safety belts: primary (vs. secondary) enforcement laws. [updated 2010 March 8; accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/safetybelts/enforcementlaws.html

[IIHS] Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. New crash tests demonstrate the influence of vehicle size and weight on safety in crashes; results are relevant to fuel economy policies. Arlington VA [accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from: http://www.iihs.org/news/2009/iihs_news_041409.pdf [PDF - 109 KB].

Leden L. 2002. Pedestrian risk decrease with pedestrian flow. A case study based on data from signalized intersections in Hamilton, Ontario. Accident Analysis and Prevention 34(4):457-464.

Lourens PF, Vissers JA, Jessurun M. 1999. Annual mileage, driving violations, and accident involvement in relation to drivers' sex, age, and level of education. Accident Analysis and Prevention 31(5):593-597.

Mackenzie, et al. 2006. A National Evaluation of the Effect of Trauma-Center Care on Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 354:366-78.

McCartt AT, Hellinga LA, Strouse LM, Farmer CM. 2009. Long-term effects of hand-held cellphone laws on driver hand-held cellphone use. Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

McEvoy SP, Stevenson MR, McCartt AT, Woodward M, Haworth C, Palamara P, Cercarelli R. 2005. Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: a case-crossover study. British Medical Journal 331(7514):428.

Norvell DC, Cummings P. 2002. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-87.

Ossenbruggen PJ, Pendharkar J, Ivan J. 2001. Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas. Accident Analysis and Prevention 33(4):485-498.

Peden M, Scurfield R, Sleet D, Mohan D, Hyder AA, Jarawan E, Mathers C. 2004. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization. [accessed 12 April 2010]. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/world_report/
en/index.html

Peek-Asa C, Zwerling C, Stallones L. 2004. Acute traumatic injuries in rural populations. American Journal of Public Health 94(10):1689-1693.

Roberts I, Norton R, Dunn R, Hassall I, Lee-Joe T. 1994. Environmental factors and child pedestrian injuries. Australian journal of public health 18(1):43-46.

Rodgers GB. 2002. Effects of state helmet laws on bicycle helmet use by children and adolescents. Injury Prevention 8: 42-46.

Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Patterson MQ, Thompson RS. 1998. Prevention of bicycle-related injuries: helmets, education, and legislation. Annual Review of Public Health 19:293-318.

Shope J T. 2007. Graduated driver licensing: Review of evaluation results since 2002. Journal of Safety Research, 38: 165-175.

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2001. Motor-vehicle occupant injury: strategies for increasing use of child safety seats, increasing use of safety belts, and reducing alcohol-impaired driving. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports 50(RR07):1-13.

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2001. Recommendations to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants: increasing child safety seat use, increasing safety belt use, and reducing alcohol-impaired driving. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21(4S):16–22.

Thompson DC, Rivara F, Thompson R. 1999. Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001855. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001855.

Tonne C, Melly S, Mittleman M, Coull B, Goldberg R, Schwartz J. 2007. A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(1):53-7.

[TRB] Transportation Research Board. The Relative Risks of School Travel. Washington DC [accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/sr/sr269.pdf [PDF - 2.12 MB].

Ulmer RG, Northrup VS. 2005. Evaluation of the repeal of the all-rider motorcycle helmet law in Florida. (DOT Report No. HS-809-849). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

Willis C, Lybrand S, Bellamy N. 2004. Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3. Article No.: CD004168. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004168.pub2.

Wilson C, Willis C, Hendrikz JK, Bellamy N. Speed enforcement detection devices for preventing road traffic injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Article No.: CD004607. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004607.pub2.

Zaza S, Sleet DA, Thompson RS, et al. 2001. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to increase use of child safety seats. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21(4S): 31-47.

Top of Page

Improve Air Quality


Brauer M, Hoek G, Smit HA, et al. 2007. Air pollution and development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort. Eur Respir J. 29(5):879-888.

Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, et al. 2004. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109:2655-2671.

Friedman MS, Powell KE, Hutwagner L, et al. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association 285:897-905.

Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, et al. 2007. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 369(9561):571-577.

Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Stang A, Lehmann N, Dragano N, et al. 2007. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 116:489–96.

Houston D, Ong P, Wu J, Winer A. 2006. Proximity of licensed child care facilities to near-roadway vehicle pollution. American Journal of Public Health 96(9):1611-1617.

Lipfert FW and Wyzga RE. 2008. On exposure and response relationships for health effects associated with exposure to vehicular traffic. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 18, 588–599; doi:10.1038/jes.2008.4; published online 5 March 2008.

Maheswaran R, Elliott P. 2003. Stroke mortality associated with living near main roads in England and wales: a geographical study. Stroke 34(12):2776-2780.

Pierse N, Rushton L, Harris RS, Kuehni CE, Silverman M, Grigg J. 2006. Locally generated particulate pollution and respiratory symptoms in young children. Thorax 61(3):216-220.

Rosenlund M, Berglind N, Pershagen GO, Hallqvist J, Jonson T, Bellander T. 2006. Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 17(4):383–390.

[SRTS]. Safe Routes to School: Steps to a greener future. How walking and bicycling to school reduces carbon emissions and air pollutants. [accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from: http://www.saferoutespartnership.org/media/file/SRTS_GHG_lo_res.pdf [PDF - 802 KB]

Expand Public Transportation


Besser LM, Dannenberg AL. 2005. Walking to public transit: steps to help meet physical activity recommendations. American journal of preventive medicine 29(4):273-280.

Iezzoni LI, Killeen MB, O'Day BL. 2006. Rural residents with disabilities confront substantial barriers to obtaining primary care. Health Services Research 41(4):1258-1275.

Top of Page

Promote Active Transportation


Berrigan D,Troriano RP, McNeel T, DiSogra C, and Balland-Barbash R. 2006. Active transportation increases adherence to activity recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31 (3):210–216.

Bianchini F, Kaaks R, Vainio H. 2002. Weight control and physical activity in cancer prevention. Obesity Reviews. 3(1):5-8.

Boarnet MG, Anderson CL, Day K, McMillan T, Alfonzo M. Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School legislation: urban form changes and children's active transportation to school. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Feb 2005; 28(2 Suppl 2):134-140.

Brownson RC, Hoehner CM, Day K, Forsyth A, Sallis JF. Measuring the built environment for physical activity state of the science. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Apr 2009; 36(4):S99-S123.

[CDC] U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Barriers to children walking to or from school-United States, 2004. [updated 2005 September 29; accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5438a2.htm

Frank LD. 2004. Economic determinants of urban form - Resulting trade-offs between active and sedentary forms of travel. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(3):146-153.

Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL. 2004 Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27(2):87-96.

Frank L, Kerr J, Chapman J, Sallis J. 2007. Urban form relationships with walk trip frequency and distance among youth. American Journal of Health Promotion 21(4 Suppl):305-311.

Frank LD, Schmid TL, Sallis JF, Chapman J, Saelens BE. 2005. Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: findings from SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28(2 Suppl 2):117-125.

Hume C, Timperio A, Salmon J, Carver A, Giles-Corti B, Crawford D. 2009. Walking and cycling to school: predictors of increases among children and adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(3):195-200.

Kerr J, Rosenberg D, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, Conway TL. 2006. Active commuting to school: Associations with environment and parental concerns. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38(4):787-794.

McDonald NC. 2007. Active transportation to school: trends among U.S. schoolchildren, 1969-2001. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32(6):509-516.

McDonald NC. 2008. Critical factors for active transportation to school among low-income and minority students. Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34(4):341-344.

Nelson NM, Foley E, O'Gorman DJ, Moyna NM, Woods CB. 2008. Active commuting to school: How far is too far? The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 5:1.

Rosenberg DE, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Cain KL, McKenzie TL. 2006. Active transportation to school over 2 years in relation to weight status and physical activity. Obesity 14(10):1771-1776.

Salmon J, Salmon L, Crawford DA, Hume C, Timperio A. 2007. Associations among individual, social, and environmental barriers and children's walking or cycling to school. American Journal of Health Promotion 22(2):107-113.

Staunton CE, Hubsmith D, Kallins W. 2003. Promoting safe walking and biking to school: the Marin County success story. American Journal of Public Health 93(9):1431-1434.

Timperio A, Ball K, Salmon J, et al. 2006. Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(1):45-51.

Top of Page

Encourage Healthy Community Design


Abercrombie LC, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Chapman JE. 2008. Income and racial disparities in access to public parks and private recreation facilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34(1):9-15.

Auchincloss AH, Diez Roux AV, Brown DG, Erdmann CA, Bertoni AG. 2008. Neighborhood resources for physical activity and healthy foods and their association with insulin resistance. Epidemiology 19(1):146-157.

Baldauf R, Thoma E, Khlystov A, et al. Impacts of noise barriers on near-road air quality. 2008. Atmospheric Environment 42(32):7502-7507.

Boothe VL, Shendell DG. 2008. Potential health effects associated with residential proximity to freeways and primary roads: Review of scientific literature, 1999-2006. Journal of Environmental Health 70(8):33-41.

Clark DE, Cushing BM. 2004. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density. Accident Analysis and Prevention 36(6):967-972.

Cohen DA, McKenzie TL, Sehgal A, Williamson S, Golinelli D, Lurie N. 2007. Contribution of public parks to physical activity. American Journal of Public Health 97(3):509-514.
de Vries SI, Bakker I, van Mechelen W, Hopman-Rock M. 2007. Determinants of activity-friendly neighborhoods for children: results from the SPACE study. American Journal of Health Promotion 21(4 Suppl):312-316.

[DOT] U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2001. Traffic Safety Facts 2001: Rural/Urban Comparison. [accessed on 2010 April 8] Available from: http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/809524.PDF [PDF - 167 KB]

[DOT]. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). 2007. Congestion: Who is Traveling at the Peak?  [accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: http://nhts.ornl.gov/briefs/Congestion - Peak Travelers.pdf [PDF - 43 KB]

[EPA]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Travel and environmental implications of school siting. [accessed 2010 April 8]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/school_travel.pdf [PDF - 1.3 MB]

Ewing R, Brownson RC, Berrigan D. 2006. Relationship between urban sprawl and weight of United States youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(6):464-474.

Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM. 2006. Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 117(2):417-424.
Guide to Community Preventive Services. Promoting physical activity: environmental and policy approaches. [updated: 2010 March 30; accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from: www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/index.html

Handy S, Sallis JF, Weber D, Maibach E, Hollander M. 2008. Is support for traditionally designed communities growing? Evidence from two national surveys. Journal of the American Planning Association 74(2):209-221.

Leyden KM. 2003. Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walkable neighborhoods. American Journal of Public Health 93(9):1546-1551.

Marshall WE, Garrick NW, Hansen G. 2008. Re-assessing on-street parking. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2046 / 2008:45-52. DOI: 10.3141/2046-06
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. 2006. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. Journal of the American Medical Association 295(13):1549-1555.

Passchier-Vermeer W, Passchier WF. 2000. Noise exposure and public health. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 Suppl 1:123-131.

Pearce N, Ait-Khaled N, Beasley R, et al. 2007. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 62(9):758-766.

Perdue WC, Stone LA, Gostin LO. 2003. The built environment and its relationship to the public's health: the legal framework. American Journal of Public Health 93(9):1390-1394.

Plumb J, Brawer R, Brisbon N. 2007. The interplay of obesity and asthma. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 7(5):385-389.

Ristovska G, Gjorgjev D, Pop Jordanova N. 2004. Psychosocial effects of community noise: cross sectional study of school children in urban center of Skopje, Macedonia. Croatian Medical Journal 45(4):473-476.

Sallis JF, Glanz K. 2006. The role of built environments in physical activity, eating, and obesity in childhood. Future of Children 16(1):89-108.

Sallis JF, Glanz K. 2009. Physical activity and food environments: Solutions to the obesity epidemic. Milbank Quarterly 87(1):123-154.

Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, et al. 2009. Neighborhood built environment and income: Examining multiple health outcomes. Social Science & Medicine 68(7):1285-1293.

Schlossberg M, Greene J, Phillips PP, Johnson B, Parker B. 2006. School trips - Effects of urban form and distance on travel mode. Journal of the American Planning Association 72(3):337-346.

Shoup DC. 1997. The High Cost of Free Parking. Journal of Planning Education and Research 17(1):3-20.

Stansfeld SA, Berglund B, Clark C, et al. 2005. Aircraft and road traffic noise and children's cognition and health: a cross-national study. Lancet 365(9475):1942-1949.

Thorpe KE, Florence CS, Howard DH, Joski P. 2004.The impact of obesity on rising medical spending. Health Affairs Suppl Web Exclusive:W4-480-486. [accessed 2010 April 9]. Available from: http://www.hbshealthalumniconference.org/archives2004/hlthaffw4480v1.pdf

Tonne C, Melly S, Mittleman M, Coull B, Goldberg R, Schwartz J. 2007. A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(1):53-57.

Trayers T, Deem R, Fox KR, Riddoch CJ, Ness AR, Lawlor DA. 2006. Improving health through neighbourhood environmental change: are we speaking the same language? A qualitative study of views of different stakeholders. Journal of Public Health 28(1):49-55.

Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D. 2008. Numerical evaluation of tree canopy shape near noise barriers to improve downwind shielding. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123(2):648-657.

von Mutius E, Schwartz J, Neas LM, Dockery D, Weiss ST. 2001. Relation of body mass index to asthma and atopy in children: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III. Thorax 56(11):835-838.

Watson M, Dannenberg AL. 2008. Investment in safe routes to school projects: public health benefits for the larger community. Preventing Chronic Disease 5(3):A90.

Younger M, Morrow-Almeida HR, Vindigni SM, Dannenberg, AL. 2008.The built environment, climate change, and health: Opportunities for co-benefits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5):517-526.

Top of Page

Require Research and Surveillance


[CDC]. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Recommended framework for presenting injury mortality data. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46(No. RR-14).

[CDC]. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Strategies to Improve External Cause-of-Injury Coding in State-Based Hospital Discharge and Emergency Department Data Systems: Recommendations of the CDC Workgroup for Improvement of External Cause-of-Injury Coding. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(No. RR-1).

[CDC]. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Recommended actions to improve external-cause-of-injury coding in state-based hospital discharge and emergency department data systems. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Dannenberg AL, Bhatia R, Cole BL, Heaton SK, Feldman JD, Rutt CD. 2008. Use of health impact Assessment in the U.S.: 27 case studies, 1999–2007. American Journal of Preventive Medicine: 34(3):241-256.

[DOT]. U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2000. Bicycle and pedestrian data: sources, needs, and gaps. BTS00-02. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

Top of Page

Support Professional Development and Job Creation


Botchwey N, et al. 2009. A model curriculum for a course on the built environment and public health: training for an interdisciplinary workforce. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(2, Supplement): S63-S71.

Durkin MS, Laraque D, Lubman I, Barlow B. 1999. Epidemiology and prevention of traffic injuries to urban children and adolescents. Pediatrics 103: e74.

Evans L. 2004. Traffic Safety.Bloomfield Hills, MI: Science Serving Society.

Staunton CE, Hubsmith D, Kallins W. 2003. Promoting safe walking and biking to school: The Marin County success story. American Journal of Public Health 93(9):1431-4.

Stuster JW. 1995. Experimental evaluation of municipal speed enforcement programs. DOT Report No. HS-808-325. Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

Zaidel DM. 2002. The Impact of Enforcement on Accidents. Finland: Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport.

Top of Page

 
 
Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd
    Atlanta, GA 30333
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    (800-232-4636)
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
  • New Hours of Operation
    8am-8pm ET/Monday-Friday
    Closed Holidays
    Contact CDC-INFO
  • Page last reviewed: April 28, 2010
  • Page last updated: April 28, 2010
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC-INFO