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STD Surveillance Case Definitions

PART 2. CASE DEFINITIONS1 FOR NON-NOTIFIABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Genital Herpes (Herpes Simplex Virus) (Revised 9/96)

Clinical description

A condition characterized by visible, painful genital or anal lesions

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Isolation of herpes simplex virus from cervix, urethra, or anogenital lesion, or
  • Demonstration of virus by antigen detection technique in clinical specimens from cervix, urethra, or anogenital lesion, or
  • Demonstration of multinucleated giant cells on a Tzanck smear of scrapings from an anogenital lesion

Case classification

Probable: a clinically compatible case (in which primary and secondary syphilis have been excluded by appropriate serologic tests and darkfield microscopy, when available) with either a diagnosis of genital herpes based on clinical presentation (without laboratory confirmation) or a history of one or more previous episodes of similar genital lesions

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed

Comment

Genital herpes should be reported only once per patient. The first diagnosis for a patient with no previous diagnosis should be reported.

Genital Warts (Revised 9/96)

Clinical description

An infection characterized by the presence of visible, exophytic (raised) growths on the internal or external genitalia, perineum, or perianal region

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Histopathologic changes characteristic of human papillomavirus infection in specimens obtained by biopsy or exfoliative cytology or
  • Demonstration of virus by antigen or nucleic acid detection in a lesion biopsy

Case classification

Probable: a clinically compatible case without histopathologic diagnosis and without microscopic or serologic evidence that the growth is the result of secondary syphilis

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed

Comment

Genital warts should be reported only once per patient. The first diagnosis for a patient with no previous diagnosis should be reported.

Granuloma Inguinale

Clinical description

A slowly progressive ulcerative disease of the skin and lymphatics of the genital and perianal area caused by infection with Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. A clinically compatible case would have one or more painless or minimally painful granulomatous lesions in the anogenital area.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Demonstration of intracytoplasmic Donovan bodies in Wright or Giemsa-stained smears or biopsies of granulation tissue

Case classification

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

Clinical description

Infection with L1, L2, or, L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis may result in a disease characterized by genital lesions, suppurative regional lymphadenopathy, or hemorrhagic proctitis. The infection is usually sexually transmitted.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • Isolation of C. trachomatis, serotype L1, L2, or L3 from clinical specimen, or
  • Demonstration by immunofluorescence of inclusion bodies in leukocytes of an inguinal lymph node (bubo) aspirate, or
  • Positive microimmunofluorescent serologic test for a lymphogranuloma venereum strain of C. trachomatis

Case classification

Probable: a clinically compatible case with one or more tender fluctuant inguinal lymph nodes or characteristic proctogenital lesions with supportive laboratory findings of a single C. trachomatis complement fixation titer of >64

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case that is laboratory confirmed

Mucopurulent Cervicitis (Revised 9/96)

Clinical description

Cervical inflammation that is not the result of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. Cervical inflammation is defined by the presence of one of the following criteria:

  • Mucopurulent secretion (from the endocervix) that is yellow or green when viewed on a white, cotton-tipped swab (positive swab test)
  • Induced endocervical bleeding (bleeding when the first swab is placed in the endocervix)

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

  • No evidence of N. gonorrhoeae by culture, Gram stain, or antigen or nucleic acid detection, and no evidence of T. vaginalis on wet mount

Case classification

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case in a female who does not have either gonorrhea or trichomoniasis

Comment

Mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. The syndrome may result from infection with any of several agents (see Chlamydia trachomatis, Genital Infections). If gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and chlamydia are excluded, a clinically compatible illness should be classified as MPC. An illness in a female that meets the case definition of MPC and C. trachomatis infection should be classified as chlamydia.

Nongonococcal Urethritis (Revised 9/96)

Clinical description

Urethral inflammation that is not the result of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Urethral inflammation may be diagnosed by the presence of one of the following criteria:

  • A visible abnormal urethral discharge, or
  • A positive leukocyte esterase test from a male aged <60 years who does not have a history of kidney disease or bladder infection, prostate enlargement, urogenital anatomic anomaly, or recent urinary tract instrumentation, or
  • Microscopic evidence of urethritis (≥5 white blood cells per high-power field) on a Gram stain of a urethral smear

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis

No evidence of N. gonorrhoeae infection by culture, Gram stain, or antigen or nucleic acid detection

Case classification

Confirmed: a clinically compatible case in a male in whom gonorrhea is not found, either by culture, Gram stain, or antigen or nucleic acid detection

Comment

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. The syndrome may result from infection with any of several agents (see Chlamydia trachomatis, Genital Infection). If gonorrhea and chlamydia are excluded, a clinically compatible illness should be classified as NGU. An illness in a male that meets the case definition of NGU and C. trachomatis infection should be classified as chlamydia.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (Revised 9/96)

Clinical case definition

A clinical syndrome resulting from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and/or contiguous structures. In a female who has lower abdominal pain and who has not been diagnosed as having an established cause other than pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, acute appendicitis, and functional pain), all the following clinical criteria must be present:

  • Lower abdominal tenderness, and
  • Tenderness with motion of the cervix, and
  • Adnexal tenderness

In addition to the preceding criteria, at least one of the following findings must also be present:

  • Meets the surveillance case definition of C. trachomatis infection or gonorrhea
  • Temperature >100.4 F (>38.0 C)
  • Leukocytosis >10,000 white blood cells/mm3
  • Purulent material in the peritoneal cavity obtained by culdocentesis or laparoscopy
  • Pelvic abscess or inflammatory complex detected by bimanual examination or by sonography
  • Patient is a sexual contact of a person known to have gonorrhea, chlamydia, or nongonococcal urethritis

Case classification

Confirmed: a case that meets the clinical case definition

Comment

For reporting purposes, a clinician’s report of PID should be counted as a case.

1    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance, 1997. MMWR 1997;46(No. RR-10;1).

 
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