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Introductory Section

Acknowledgments

Publication of this report would not have been possible without the contributions of the State and Territorial Health Departments, the Sexually Transmitted Disease Control Programs, the Regional Infertility Prevention Projects, and Public Health Laboratories. We also acknowledge the contributions of staff within the Division of STD Prevention, the Statistics and Data Management Branch and the Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch.

Copyright Information

All material contained in this report is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without special permission; citation to source, however, is appreciated.

Suggested Citation

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; November 2009.

Printed copies of this report can be obtained at the following web site: http://www.cdc.gov/std/pubs/

Selected STD Surveillance and Prevention References and Websites

STD Surveillance Reports 1993–2008
http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/

STD Data on Wonder
http://wonder.cdc.gov/std.html

STD Data Management & Information Technology
http://www.cdc.gov/std/Program/data-mgmt.htm

STD Fact Sheets
http://www.cdc.gov/std/healthcomm/fact_sheets.htm

STD Treatment Guidelines
http://www.cdc.gov/STD/treatment/

STD Program Evaluation Guidelines
http://www.cdc.gov/std/program/pupestd.htm

STD Program Operation Guidelines
http://www.cdc.gov/std/program/default.htm

Recommendations for Public Health Surveillance of Syphilis in the United States
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5233a7.htm

Behavioral Surveillance
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm

National Survey of Family Growth: Advance Data 362. Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15–44 Years of Age, United States, 2002. 56 pp. (PHS) 2003–1250: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad362.pdf (1.2 MB)

Foreword

"STDs are hidden epidemics of enormous health and economic consequence in the United States. They are hidden because many Americans are reluctant to address sexual health issues in an open way and because of the biologic and social characteristics of these diseases. All Americans have an interest in STD prevention because all communities are impacted by STDs and all individuals directly or indirectly pay for the costs of these diseases. STDs are public health problems that lack easy solutions because they are rooted in human behavior and fundamental societal problems. Indeed, there are many obstacles to effective prevention efforts. The first hurdle will be to confront the reluctance of American society to openly confront issues surrounding sexuality and STDs. Despite the barriers, there are existing individual- and community-based interventions that are effective and can be implemented immediately. That is why a multifaceted approach is necessary to both the individual and community levels.

To successfully prevent STDs, many stakeholders need to redefine their mission, refocus their efforts, modify how they deliver services, and accept new responsibilities. In this process, strong leadership, innovative thinking, partnerships, and adequate resources will be required. The additional investment required to effectively prevent STDs may be considerable, but it is negligible when compared with the likely return on the investment. The process of preventing STDs must be a collaborative one. No one agency, organization, or sector can effectively do it alone; all members of the community must do their part. A successful national initiative to confront and prevent STDs requires widespread public awareness and participation and bold national leadership from the highest levels."1

1Concluding statement from the Institute of Medicine’s Summary Report, The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1997, p.43.

Preface

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008 presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States through 2008. This annual publication is intended as a reference document for policy makers, program managers, health planners, researchers, and others who are concerned with the public health implications of these diseases. The figures and tables in this edition supersede those in earlier publications of these data.

The surveillance information in this report is based on the following sources of data: (1) notifiable disease reporting from state and local STD programs; (2) projects that monitor STD prevalence in various settings including; the Regional Infertility Prevention Projects (IPP); the National Job Training Program; the Indian Health Service; the Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) Prevalence Monitoring Project; the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP); and (3) national surveys implemented by federal and private organizations.

The STD surveillance systems operated by state and local STD control programs, which provide the case report data for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid are the data sources of many of the figures and most of the statistical tables in this publication. These systems are an integral part of program management at all levels of STD prevention and control in the United States. Because of incomplete diagnosis and reporting, the number of STD cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is less than the actual number of cases occurring in the United States population. National summary data of case reports for other STDs are not available because they are not nationally notifiable diseases.

Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008 consists of four parts: (1) The National Profile contains figures that provide an overview of STD morbidity in the United States. The accompanying text identifies major findings and trends for selected STDs. (2) The Special Focus Profiles contain figures and text describing STDs in selected subgroups and populations that are a focus of national and state prevention efforts. (3) The Detailed Tables provide statistical information about STDs at the county, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), regional, state, and national levels. (4) The Appendix (Interpreting STD Surveillance Data) includes information on interpreting the STD surveillance data used to produce this report; Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) STD objectives and progress toward meeting them; Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) goals and progress toward meeting them; and STD surveillance case definitions.

Any comments and suggestions that would improve the usefulness of future publications are appreciated and should be sent to:

Director, Division of STD Prevention
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-02
Atlanta, Georgia, 30333

Guide to Acronyms


Add Health      National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
CDC      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CSF      Cerebrospinal Fluid
DHHS      Department of Health and Human Services
DSTDP      Division of STD Prevention
GISP      Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project
GPRA      Government Performance and Results Act
HEDIS      Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set
HIV      Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HP2010      Healthy People 2010
HPV      Human Papillomavirus
HSV      Herpes Simplex Virus
IPP      Infertility Prevention Project
MICs      Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations
MMWR      Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MPC      Mucopurulent Cervicitis
MSA      Metropolitan Statistical Area
MSM      Men Who Have Sex With Men
NAATs      Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests
NDTI      National Disease and Therapeutic Index
NGU      Nongonococcal Urethritis
NHANES      National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS      National Hospital Discharge Survey
OMB      Office of Management and Budget
P&S      Primary and Secondary
PID      Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
QRNG      Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae
RPR      Rapid Plasma Reagin
STD      Sexually Transmitted Disease
VDRL      Venereal Disease Research Laboratory

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