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Improvements in Drinking Water Quality

Lantagne D, Klarman M, Mayer A, Preston K, Napotnik J, Jellison K. Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment. Int J Environ Health Res. 2010;Jun 20(3):171-87.

Crump J, Okoth G, Slutsker L, Ogaja D, Keswick B, Luby S. Effect of point-of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation-disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya. App Microbiol. 2004;97:225-31.

Rangel JM, Lopez B, A MM, Mendoza  C, Luby S. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: A microbiological  evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala. J Water Health. 2003;1:15-22.

Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Raza A, Sobel J, Mintz E, Baier K, Rahbar M, Qureshi S, Hassan R, Ghouri F, Hoekstra RM, Gangarosa E. A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2001;5(3):144-50.

Roberts L, Chartier Y, Chartier O, Malenga G, Toole M, Rodka H. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(4):280-7.

Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Raza A, Mintz E, Sobel J, Hussain S, Husan R, Ghouri F, Baier K, Gangarosa G.  Microbiologic Evaluation and Community Acceptance of a Plastic Water Storage Vessel, Point-of-Use Water Treatment, and Handwashing in Karachi, Pakistan. 47th Annual EIS Conference. April 1998.

Quick RE, Venczel LV, González O, Mintz ED, Highsmith AK, Espada A, Damiani E, Bean NH, De Hannover EH, Tauxe RV. Narrow-mouthed water storage vessels and in situ chlorination in a Bolivian community: a simple method to improve drinking water quality. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996;May 54(5):511-6.

Diarrheal Disease Reduction

Garrett V, Ogutu P, Mabonga P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Aluoch G, Phelan M, Quick RE. Diarrhoea prevention in a high-risk rural Kenyan population through point-of-use chlorination, safe water storage, sanitation, and rainwater harvesting. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;Nov 136(11):1463-71.

Lule JR, Mermin J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Hughes P, Bunnell R, Kaharuza F, Coutinho A, Kigozi A, Quick R. Effect of home-based water chlorination and safe storage on diarrhea among persons with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;Nov 73(5):926-33.

Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Hoekstra R, Rahbar M, Billhimer W, Keswick B. Delayed effectiveness of home-based interventions in reducing childhood diarrhea, Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:420-7.

Quick RE, Kimura A, Thevos A, Tembo M, Shamputa I, Hutwagner L, Mintz E. Diarrhea prevention through household-level water disinfection and safe storage in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;May 66(5):584-9.

Quick RE, Venczel LV, Mintz ED, Soleto L, Aparicio J, Gironaz M, Hutwagner L, Greene K, Bopp C, Maloney K, Chavez D, Sobsey M, Tauxe RV. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy. Epidemiol Infect. 1999;Feb 122(1):83-90.

Semenza JC, Roberts L, Henderson A, Bogan J, Rubin CH. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;Dec 59(6):941-6.

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Behavior Change Communications

Freeman MC, Quick RE, Abbott DP, Ogutu P, Rheingans R. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya. J Water Health. 2009;Sep 7(3):527-34.

Thevos A, Olsen S, Rangel J, Kaona F, Tembo M, Quick R. Social marketing and motivational interviewing as community interventions for safe water behaviors: follow-up surveys in Zambia. Int'l Quart of Comm Health Ed. 2003;21:51-65.

Thevos AK, Kaona FA, Siajunza MT, Quick RE. Adoption of safe water behaviors in Zambia: comparing educational and motivational approaches. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2000;13(3):366-76.

Thevos A, Quick R, Yanduli V. Motivational interviewing enhances the adoption of water disinfection practices in Zambia [PDF - 11 pages]. Health Promot Int. 2000;15:207-14.

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Proven Household Water Treatment Options

Point-of-use Chlorination (Safe Water System)

Kotlarz N, Lantagne D, Preston K, Jellison K. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using locally available physical water clarification mechanisms before household chlorination in developing countries. J Water Health. 2009; Sep 7(3):497-506.

Lantagne DS, Cardinali F, Blount BC. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;Jul 83(1):135-43.

Jain S, Sahanoon OK, Blanton E, Schmitz A, Wannemuehler KA, Hoekstra RM, Quick RE. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;Jan 82(1):16-22.

Mintz ED, Quick R, Sobel J, Luby S, Daniels N, Tauxe R. The CDC safe water system: A working strategy for waterborne disease prevention in developing countries. Atlanta, Georgia: CDC Care USA;2001.

Preston K, Lantagne D, Kotlarz N, Jellison K. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries. J Water Health. 2010;Mar 8(1):60-70.

Lantagne D. Comment on "An observational study on the effectiveness of point-of-use chlorination". J Environ Health. 2010;Jan-Feb 72(6):74, 78;author reply 78.

Lantagne DS. Viability of commercially available bleach for water treatment in developing countries. Am J Public Health. 2009;Nov 99(11):1975-8.

Lantagne D. Comment on "An observational study on the effectiveness of point-of-use chlorination". J Environ Health. 2009;Sep 72(2):38-9.

Luby SP, Mendoza C, Keswick BH, Chiller TM, Hoekstra RM. Difficulties in bringing point-of-use water treatment to scale in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; Mar 78(3):382-7.

Lantagne DS, Blount BC, Cardinali F, Quick R. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya. J Water Health. 2008;Mar 6(1):67-82.

Ram PK, Kelsey E, Rasoatiana, Miarintsoa RR, Rakotomalala O, Dunston C, Quick RE. Bringing safe water to remote populations: an evaluation of a portable point-of-use intervention in rural Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2007;Mar 97(3):398-400.

Stockman LJ, Fischer TK, Deming M, Ngwira B, Bowie C, Cunliffe N, Bresee J, Quick RE. Point-of-use water treatment and use among mothers in Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;Jul 13(7):1077-80.

Banerjee A, McFarland DA, Singh R, Quick R. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia. J Water Health. 2007;Sep 5(3):385-94.

Lule JR, Mermin J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Hughes P, Bunnell R, Kaharuza F, Coutinho A, Kigozi A, Quick R. Effect of home-based water chlorination and safe storage on diarrhea among persons with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;Nov 73(5):926-33.

Macy JT, Quick R. World Spotlight: A household-based water quality intervention for the developing world. Water Cond Purific Mag. 2002;April 44(4).

Mintz E, Bartram J, Lochery P, Wegelin M. Not just a drop in the bucket: expanding access to point-of-use water treatment systems. Am J Public Health. 2001;Oct 91(10):1565-70.

Dunston C, McAfee D, Kaiser R, Rakotoarison D, Rambeloson L, Hoang AT, Quick RE. Collaboration, cholera, and cyclones: a project to improve point-of-use water quality in Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2001; Oct 91(10):1574-6.

Mong Y, Kaiser R, Ibrahim D, Rasoatiana, Razafimbololona L, Quick RE. Impact of the safe water system on water quality in cyclone-affected communities in Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2001;Oct 91(10):1577-9.

Makutsa P, Nzaku K, Ogutu P, Barasa P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Quick RE. Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in rural Kenya. Am J Public Health. 2001;Oct 91(10):1571-3.

Macy JT, Quick RE. Evaluation of a novel drinking water treatment and storage intervention in Nicaragua [PDF - 2 pages]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 1998;Feb 3(2):135-6.

Reiff FM, Roses M, Venczel L, Quick R, Witt VM. Low-cost safe water for the world: a practical interim solution. J Public Health Policy. 1996; 17(4):389-408.

Mintz ED, Reiff FM, Tauxe RV. Safe water treatment and storage in the home. A practical new strategy to prevent waterborne disease. JAMA. 1995;Mar 273(12):948-53.

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Flocculant-disinfectant

Norton DM, Rahman M, Shane AL, Hossain Z, Kulick RM, Bhuiyan MI, Wahed MA, Yunus M, Islam MS, Breiman RF, Henderson A, Keswick BH, Luby SP. Flocculant-disinfectant point-of-use water treatment for reducing arsenic exposure in rural Bangladesh. Int J Environ Health Res. 2009;Feb 19(1):17-29.

Colindres RE, Jain S, Bowen A, Mintz E, Domond P. After the flood: an evaluation of in-home drinking water treatment with combined flocculent-disinfectant following Tropical Storm Jeanne -- Gonaives, Haiti, 2004. J Water Health. 2007;Sep 5(3):367-74.

Chiller TM, Mendoza CE, Lopez MB, Alvarez M, Hoekstra RM, Keswick BH, Luby SP. Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;Jan 84(1):28-35.

Crump J, Otieno P, Slutsker L, Keswick B, Rosen D, Hoekstra R, Vulule J, Luby S. Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled. BMJ 2005;10:1-6.

Crump J, Okoth G, Slutsker L, Ogaja D, Keswick B, Luby S. Effect of point-of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation-disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya. J of App Microbiol. 2004;97:225-31.

Rangel JM, Lopez B, A MM, Mendoza  C, Luby S. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: A microbiological  evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala. J  Water Health. 2003;Mar 1(1):15-22.

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Ceramic Filtration

Lantagne D, Klarman M, Mayer A, Preston K, Napotnik J, Jellison K. Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment. Int J Environ Health Res. 2010;Jun 20(3):171-87.

Lantagne D, Meierhofer R, Allgood G, McGuigan KG, Quick R. Comment on "Point of use household drinking water filtration: a practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world". Environ Sci Technol. 2009;Feb 43(3):968-9;author reply 970-1.

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Multiple Treatment Methods

Gupta SK, Suantio A, Gray A, Widyastuti E, Jain N, Rolos R, Hoekstra RM, Quick R. Factors associated with E. coli contamination of household drinking water among tsunami and earthquake survivors, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;Jun 76(6):1158-62.

Ram PK, Blanton E, Klinghoffer D, Platek M, Piper J, Straif-Bourgeois S, Bonner MR, Mintz ED. Household water disinfection in hurricane-affected communities of Louisiana: implications for disaster preparedness for the general public. Am J Public Health. 2007;Apr 97 Suppl 1:S130-5.

Lantagne DS, Quick R, Mintz E.  Household water treatment and safe storage options in developing countries: A review of current implementation practices, in Water Stories: Expanding Opportunities in Small-Scale Water and Sanitation Projects [PDF - 98 pages], M. Parker, Williams, A, Youngblood C, Editor. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2006;p-17-38.

Reller ME, Mong YJ, Hoekstra RM, Quick RE. Cholera prevention with traditional and novel water treatment methods: an outbreak investigation in Fort-Dauphin, Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2001 Oct;91(10):1608-10. Erratum in: Am J Public Health 2002;Apr 92(4):508.

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Well Chlorination

Cavallaro EC, Harris JR, da Goia MS, dos Santos Barrado JC, da Nóbrega AA, de Alvarenga de Junior IC, Silva AP, Sobel J, Mintz E. Evaluation of pot-chlorination of wells during a cholera outbreak, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 2008.  J Water Health. 2011;Jun 9(2):394-402.

Luby S. Islam MdS, Johnston R. Chlorine spot treatment of flooded tube wells, an efficacy trial.  J Appl Microbiol. 2006; May 100(5):1154-8.

Rowe AK, Angulo F, Roberts L, Tauxe R. Chlorinating well water with liquid bleach was not an effective water disinfection strategy in Guinea-Bissau [PDF - 3 pages]. Int J of Environ Health Res. 1998;8:339-40.

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Safe Water Storage

Lantagne DS, Quick R, Mintz E. Household water treatment and safe storage options in developing countries: A review of current implementation practices, in Water Stories: Expanding Opportunities in Small-Scale Water and Sanitation Projects. [PDF - 98 pages] M. Parker, Williams, A, Youngblood C, Editor. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2006:17-38.

Lule JR, Mermin J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Hughes P, Bunnell R, Kaharuza F, Coutinho A, Kigozi A, Quick R. Effect of home-based water chlorination and safe storage on diarrhea among persons with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;Nov 73(5):926-33.

Macy J. The use of locally  produced clay pots modified for safe storage of drinking water in the home a component of Care Kenya's  Nyanza Healthy Water Project. Best Practices using Indigenous knowledge- Africa 2003:30-7.

Ogutu P, Garrett V, Barasa P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Quick RE. Seeking safe storage: a comparison of drinking water quality in clay and plastic vessels. Am J Public Health. 2001;Oct 91(10):1610-1.

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Integrating Household Water Treatment and Storage in Schools, Clinics, Street Vendors, and Health Services for People Living with HIV/AIDS

Barzilay EJ, Aghoghovbia TS, Blanton EM, Akinpelumi AA, Coldiron ME, Akinfolayan O, Adeleye OA, LaTrielle A, Hoekstra RM, Gilpin U, Quick R. Diarrhea prevention in people living with HIV: an evaluation of a point-of-use water quality intervention in Lagos, Nigeria. AIDS Care. 2011;Mar 23(3):330-9.

Sheth AN, Russo ET, Menon M, Wannemuehler K, Weinger M, Kudzala AC, Tauzie B, Masuku HD, Msowoya TE, Quick R. Impact of the integration of water treatment and handwashing incentives with antenatal services on hygiene practices of pregnant women in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;Dec 83(6):1315-21.

Blanton E, Ombeki S, Oluoch GO, Mwaki A, Wannemuehler K, Quick R. Evaluation of the role of school children in the promotion of point-of-use water treatment and handwashing in schools and households--Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;Apr 82(4):664-71.

Harris JR, Greene SK, Thomas TK, Ndivo R, Okanda J, Masaba R, Nyangau I, Thigpen MC, Hoekstra RM, Quick RE. Effect of a point-of-use water treatment and safe water storage intervention on diarrhea in infants of HIV-infected mothers. J Infect Dis. 2009;Oct 200(8):1186-93.

Colindres P, Mermin J, Ezati E, Kambabazi S, Buyungo P, Sekabembe L, Baryarama F, Kitabire F, Mukasa S, Kizito F, Fitzgerald C, Quick R. Utilization of a basic care and prevention package by HIV-infected persons in Uganda. AIDS Care. 2008;Feb 20(2):139-45.

O'Reilly CE, Freeman MC, Ravani M, Migele J, Mwaki A, Ayalo M, Ombeki S, Hoekstra RM, Quick R. The impact of a school-based safe water and hygiene programme on knowledge and practices of students and their parents: Nyanza Province, western Kenya, 2006. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;Jan 136(1):80-91.

Migele J, Ombeki S, Ayalo M, Biggerstaff M, Quick R. Diarrhea prevention in a Kenyan school through the use of a simple safe water and hygiene intervention. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;Feb 76(2):351-3.

Parker AA, Stephenson R, Riley PL, Ombeki S, Komolleh C, Sibley L, Quick R. Sustained high levels of stored drinking water treatment and retention of hand-washing knowledge in rural Kenyan households following a clinic-based intervention. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;Oct 134(5):1029-36.

Shrestha RK, Marseille E, Kahn JG, Lule JR, Pitter C, Blandford JM, Bunnell R, Coutinho A, Kizito F, Quick R, Mermin J. Cost-effectiveness of home-based chlorination and safe water storage in reducing diarrhea among HIV-affected households in rural Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;May 74(5):884-90.

Lule JR, Mermin J, Ekwaru JP, Malamba S, Downing R, Ransom R, Nakanjako D, Wafula W, Hughes P, Bunnell R, Kaharuza F, Coutinho A, Kigozi A, Quick R. Effect of home-based water chlorination and safe storage on diarrhea among persons with human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;Nov 73(5):926-33.

Sobel J, Mahon B, Mendoza CE, Passaro D, Cano F, Baier K, Racioppi F, Hutwagner L, Mintz E. Reduction of fecal contamination of street-vended beverages in Guatemala by a simple system for water purification and storage, handwashing, and beverage storage. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;Sep 59(3):380-7.

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Handwashing

Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Bowen A, Kenah E, Sharker Y, Hoekstra RM. Difficulties in maintaining improved handwashing behavior, Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;Jul 81(1):140-5.

Bowen A, Ma H, Ou J, Billhimer W, Long T, Mintz E, Hoekstra RM, Luby S. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;Jun 76(6):1166-73.

Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Feikin DP, Billheimer W, Altaf A, Hoekstra RM. Effect of handwashing on child health:  A randomized controlled trial. The Lancet 2005;366:225-33.

Luby S, Agboatwall M, Painter J, Altaf A, Billhimer W, Hoekstra R. Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan;A randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:2547-54.

Hutin Y, Luby, S, Paquet C. A large outbreak in Kano City, Nigeria : the importance of hand washing with soap and the danger of street-vended water. J Water Health. 2003;01.1:45-52.

Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Schnell B, Hoekstra R, Rahbar M, Keswick B. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med and Hyg. 2003;67:430-5.

Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Raza A, Sobel J, Mintz ED, Baier K, Hoekstra RM, Rahbar MH, Hassan R, Qureshi SM, Gangarosa EJ. Microbiologic effectiveness of handwashing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127:237-44.

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Cholera Prevention

DuBois AE, Sinkala M, Kalluri P, Makasa-Chikoya M, Quick RE. Epidemic cholera in urban Zambia: hand soap and dried fish as protective factors. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;Dec 134(6):1226-30.

Gunnlaugsson G, Angulo FJ, Einarsdottir J, Passa A, Tauxe RV. Epidemic Cholera in Guinea- Bissau: The Challenge of Preventing Deaths in Rural West Africa. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;4:8-13.

Hutin Y, Luby, S, Paquet C. A large outbreak in Kano City, Nigeria : the importance of hand washing with soap and the danger of street-vended water. J Water Health. 2003;1(1):45-52.

Reller ME, Mong YJ, Hoekstra RM, Quick RE. Cholera prevention with traditional and novel water treatment methods: an outbreak investigation in Fort-Dauphin, Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2001 Oct;91(10):1608-10. Erratum in: Am J Public Health 2002;Apr 92(4):508.

Dunston C, McAfee D, Kaiser R, Rakotoarison D, Rambeloson L, Hoang AT, Quick RE. Collaboration, cholera, and cyclones: a project to improve point-of-use water quality in Madagascar. Am J Public Health. 2001;Oct 91(10):1574-6.

Daniels NA, Simons SL, Rodrigues A, Gunnlaugsson G, Forster TS, Wells JG, Hutwagner L, Tauxe RV, Mintz ED. First do no harm: making oral rehydration solution safer in a cholera epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;Jun 60(6):1051-5.

Shapiro RL, Otieno MR, Adcock PM, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Kumar L, Waiyaki P, Nahlen BL, Slutsker L. Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae 01 in rural Western Kenya  associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria. Am J Trop Med Hyg  1999;60:271-6.

Rowe AK, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV.  A Lime in a Litre Rapidly Kills Toxogenic Vibrio cholerae O1. Trop Doct. 1998;Oct 28(4):247-8.

Gunnlaugsson G, Einarsdottir J, Angulo FJ, Mentambanar SA, Passa A, Tauxe RV. Funerals during the 1994 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa:  The need for disinfection of bodies of persons dying of cholera. Epidemiol Infect. 1998;120:7-15.

Tauxe RV, Mintz ED, Quick RE. Epidemic cholera in the new world: translating field epidemiology into new prevention strategies. Emerg Infect Dis. 1995;Oct-Dec 1(4):141-6.

Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Greene KD, Saldana W, Seminario L, Tauxe RV. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet. 1992;Jul 340(8810):28-33.

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Infant Feeding

Harris JR, Greene SK, Thomas TK, Ndivo R, Okanda J, Masaba R, Nyangau I, Thigpen MC, Hoekstra RM, Quick RE.  Effect of a point-of-use water treatment and safe water storage intervention on diarrhea in infants of HIV-infected mothers.  J Infect Dis. 2009;Oct 200(8):1186-93.

Ma L, Zhang G, Swaminathan B, Doyle M, Bowen A. Efficacy of protocols for cleaning and disinfecting infant feeding bottles in less developed communities. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;Jul 81(1):132-9.

Wu FM, Beuchat LR, Doyle MP, Mintz ED, Wells JG, Swaminathan B. Survival and growth of Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis, and Vibrio cholerae O1 in reconstituted infant formula. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;Jun 66(6):782-6.

Dunne EF, Angoran-Bénié H, Kamelan-Tano A, Sibailly TS, Monga BB, Kouadio L, Roels TH, Wiktor SZ, Lackritz EM, Mintz ED, Luby S. Is drinking water in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, safe for infant formula? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;Dec 28(4):393-8.

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Other

Mach O, Lu L, Creek T, Bowen A, Arvelo W, Smit M, Masunge J, Brennan M, Handzel T. Population-based study of a widespread outbreak of diarrhea associated with increased mortality and malnutrition in Botswana, January-March, 2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;May 80(5):812-8.

Gupta SK, Islam MS, Johnston R, Ram PK, Luby SP. The chulli water purifier: acceptability and effectiveness of an innovative strategy for household water treatment in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;Jun 78(6):979-84.

Gupta SK, Sheikh MA, Islam MS, Rahman KS, Jahan N, Rahman MM, Hoekstra RM, Johnston R, Ram PK, Luby S. Usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide test for assessment of water quality in Bangladesh. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;Feb 104(2):388-95.

Crump JA, Mendoza CE, Priest JW, Glass RI, Monroe SS, Dauphin LA, Bibb WF, Lopez MB, Alvarez M, Mintz ED, Luby SP. Comparing serologic response against enteric pathogens with reported diarrhea to assess the impact of improved household drinking water quality. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; Jul 77(1):136-41.

Stockman LJ, Fischer TK, Deming M, Ngwira B, Bowie C, Cunliffe N, Bresee J, Quick RE. Point-of-use water treatment and use among mothers in Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;Jul 13(7):1077-80.

Gupta S, Quick R. Inadequate drinking water quality from tanker trucks following a Tsunami disaster, Aceh, Indonesia, June 2005. Disaster Prevention and Management 2006;15:213-5.

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