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Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Molecular Epidemiology

  • Averhoff F, Zucker J, Vellozzi C, et al. Adequacy of surveillance to detect endemic rubella transmission in the United States Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(Suppl 3):S151-7.
  • Zheng D-P, Zhu H, Gerna G, Frey TK. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella virus isolated during a period of epidemic transmission in Italy, 1991-1997. J Infect Dis 2003;187:1587-97.
  • Hofmann J, Renz M, Meyer S, von Haeseler A, Liebert UG. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella virus including new genotype I. Virus Res 2003;96:123-8.
  • Donadio FF, Siqueira MM, Vyse A, Jin L, Oliveira SA. The genomic analysis of rubella virus detected from outbreak and sporadic cases in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. J Clin Virol 2002;27:205-9.
  • Reef SE, Frey TK, Theall K, et al. The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: On the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention. JAMA 2002;287:464-72.
  • Frey TK, Abernathy ES, Bosma TJ, et al. Molecular analysis of rubella virus epidemiology across three continents, North America, Europe, and Asia, 1961-1997. J Infect Dis 1998;178:642-50.

Serology and Diagnostics

  • Best JM, O'Shea S, Tipples G, et al. Interpretation of rubella serology in pregnancy—pitfalls and problems. BMJ 2002;325:147-8.
  • Enders G. Serologic test combinations for safe detection of rubella infections. Rev Infect Dis 1985;7(Suppl);S113-22.

Surveillance programs

  • Irons B, Carrasco P, Morris-Glasgow V, Castillo-Solórzano C, de Quadros CA. Integrating measles and rubella surveillance: The experience in the Caribbean. J Infect Dis 2003:187;S153-7.
  • Pan American Health Organization. Measles and rubella surveillance: Integration in the Americas. EPI Newsl 2000;22:4-5.

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