Violence can lead to injury and death among women of all ages. CDC continues a history of seeking insights into how to protect women
of reproductive age from preventable causes of injury that can lead to
excess morbidity and mortality. In 1997, the first meeting on pregnancy
related violence was held to obtain expert advice on the key scientific
issues related to research on violence around the time of pregnancy. This
meeting one of the first formal collaborations between the CDC's Division of
Reproductive Health and CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and
Control (NCIPC). In 2001, this effort was one the highlights of the first
national Summit on Safe Motherhood, as scientists, health professionals and
program managers noted that violence may play a key role in women’s health
before, during and after pregnancy. We continue this
collaboration to gain a greater understanding of the role of violence in the
lives of women of reproductive age.
This is a nationwide service offering crisis intervention, information about domestic violence and referrals to local service providers to victims of domestic violence and those calling on their behalf. Highly qualified and trained Hotline Advocates to are available to answer every call. Assistance is available in both English and Spanish. Hotline Advocates and volunteers also have access to translators in 139 languages.
Scientific Evidence on Violence and Reproductive Health
Homicide: A Leading Cause of Injury Deaths among Pregnant and Postpartum
Women in the United States, 1991–1999.
The National Criminal
Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) (http://www.ncjrs.gov)
Death Reporting System (NVDRS)
Organizations offering services for clinicians and others involved in preventing violence against women of reproductive age:
Maternal and Child Health Journal
special issue; Violence and Reproductive Health Abstracts
Strategies to Reduce Pregnancy-Related Deaths
Search PubMed for articles on Pregnancy and Domestic Violence
Search PubMed for articles on Intimate Partner Violence
The following is a list of pregnancy and violence related publications authored by CDC's Division of Reproductive Health. These publications are only a few of the scientific and technical materials available. We recommend that you review abstracts of our reports and other publications by using the resources of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service. PubMed is a searchable database that provides abstracts of biomedical articles and reports. You may also be able to obtain full text articles (some services may require subscriptions to view full text articles). If you are seeking less technical information, please use the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, which offers a wide range of information on diseases, disorders, treatments, drugs and preventive services.
Chang J, Berg CJ, Saltzman LE, Herndon J. Homicide: a leading cause of injury deaths among pregnant and postpartum women in the United States, 1991–1999. Am J Public Health 2005;95(3):471–7.
Goodwin MM, Petersen R, Kowal D, Koenig L, Saltzman LE, Spitz AM. Highlights of national conference on violence and reproductive health: science, prevention, and action. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;18:186–187.
Moore M. Reproductive health and intimate partner violence. Family Planning Perspectives 1999;31(6):302–306,312.
Gazmararian JA, Adams, MM, Saltzman LE, Johnson CH, Bruce FC, Marks JS, Zahniser SC. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Intendedness and Physical Violence in Mothers of Newborns. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;85:1031–1038.
Gazmararian JA, Lazorick S, Spitz AM, Ballard TJ, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. Prevalence of Violence Against Pregnant Women: A Review of the Literature. JAMA 1996;275:1915–1920.
Petersen R, Gazmararian JA, Spitz AM, Rowley DL, Goodwin MM, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. Violence and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1997;13:366–373.
Dietz PM, Gazmararian JA, Goodwin MM, Bruce FC, Johnson CH, Rochat RW, and PRAMS Working Group. Delayed Entry to Prenatal Care: Impact of Physical Violence. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;90:221–224.
Ballard TJ, Saltzman LE, Gazmararian JA, Spitz AM, Lazorick S, Marks JS. Violence During Pregnancy: Measurement Issues. AJPH 1998;88:274–276.
Saltzman, Linda E. "Battering During Pregnancy: A Role For Physicians." Atlanta Medicine 1990;64(3):45–47,49.
Dietz PM, Spitz AM, Anda RF, Williamson DF, McMahon PM, Santelli JS, Nordenberg D, Felitti VJ, Kendrick JS. Unintended Pregnancy Among Adult Women Exposed to Abuse and Household Dysfunction During Their Childhood. JAMA 1999;282:1359–1364.
Page last reviewed: 2/25/09