Are PRAMS data available to outside researchers?
Yes. Researchers may for studies that involve multiple states by submitting a proposal to CDC. The submission process is outlined below. Please refer to the Proposal Guidelines [PDF - 109KB] for more detailed instructions.
Proposal submissions must include
- PRAMS Application Form [PDF - 472 KB].
- Project Abstract of 350 words or less.
- Signed Data Sharing Agreement [PDF - 28KB] (including signatures of all authors).
Proposal reviews are conducted once a month. Complete proposals must be received by close of business on the 1st day of the month to be included in the review. Proposals received after the 1st will be reviewed the following month. The application form, abstract, and data sharing agreement should be combined into a single pdf file. File name should be the Principal Researcher’s last name. Submissions should be sent to PRAMSProposals@cdc.gov. Incomplete submissions will be returned without review.
Researchers will receive an e-mail regarding the status of their proposal approximately 2 weeks after the review date. Disapproved proposals will be returned with comments. Approved proposals will be forwarded to the PRAMS states for review. Data sets for approved proposals are issued approximately 6–8 weeks following the review date.
The PRAMS Analytic Research File contains a standard set of variables enumerated in the PRAMS Research Dataset Codebook [PDF - 211KB]. The PRAMS data set includes five categories of the following variables:
- Birth Certificate Variables: Selected variables from the birth certificate file are included in the data set; information on maternal and infant demographics are primarily from this source.
- Questionnaire Variables: This is the information collected from the PRAMS survey.
- Analytic Variables: These are precalculated variables that combine different variables in the data set, often those that are restricted (e.g., body mass index [BMI] created by combining variables on maternal weight and height).
- Operational Variables: These variables come from the data collection process (e.g., mode the questionnaire was answered by mail or phone).
- Weighting Variables: These variables account for the PRAMS survey design and the statistical weighting of the data. These variables are needed to analyze PRAMS data by using complex sample software.
Because of the PRAMS complex survey design, PRAMS data need to be analyzed by using appropriate software that can account for the complex sample. Use of these variables for some software is provided below.
Researchers can request additional Questionnaire Variables by submitting a list and justifying the need for the variables in their abstract (See Proposal Guidelines, and refer to PRAMS Topic Reference Documents or Standard Question Lists for questions).
NOTE: Requests for additional Birth Certificate Variables are not submitted to CDC. These requests go directly to the PRAMS coordinators in the states of interest. Researchers are responsible for obtaining individual state approval for any birth certificate variables outside of the PRAMS Analytic Research File. CDC will create data sets for these requests only upon receipt of written permission from each requested state. PRAMS state coordinator contact information is available at the PRAMS map by clicking on the state of interest.
The PRAMS questionnaire is revised periodically. With each revision or new phase of the questionnaire, some of the questions change. Although most indicators can be compared across phases, it is often easiest to analyze data within a single phase. The years covered by the different phases are listed below:
Phase 7 (2012-2013)
Phase 6 (2009–2011)
Phase 5 (2004–2008)
Phase 4 (2000–2003)
Phase 3 (1996–1999)
Phase 2 (1990–1995)
Phase 1 (1988–1989) Pilot Phase
The PRAMS questionnaire has three parts: a core that all states use; a bank of standardized optional questions that states may select from; and state-developed questions that are usually used only by the state that developed them.
The following documents may be useful:
- Question Lists by Phase (Phase 7 Core Questions, Phase 7 Standard Questions, etc.).
- Topic Reference Document by Phase (Lists all questions by topic and indicates which states used standard and state-specific questions on these topics).
PRAMS has a minimum overall response rate threshold policy for the release of data. For years 2006 and earlier, this threshold was 70%. Beginning in 2007, the threshold changed to 65%. For any given year, the majority, but not all states meet the threshold. For this reason the number of states with data available may vary from year to year. By requesting “All states sites with data available” on the application form, CDC will include the appropriate state data in approved data sets. For more information, see Data Availability by State and Year: Table [xls - 18KB] (standard version) Table [xls - 18KB] (508-compliant version, accessible to people with disabilities).
Researchers should carefully review the terms of the data sharing agreement before submitting abstracts or manuscripts using PRAMS data for publication. In particular, please note
- Abstracts and manuscripts must be sent to CDC for distribution to PRAMS sites for review at least 4 weeks prior to submission to conferences or journals.
- Publications using PRAMS data should include an acknowledgement of the PRAMS Working Group [PDF - 362KB].
For more information about the request/proposal process, please send an inquiry to PRAMSProposals@cdc.gov.
- Page last reviewed: December 5, 2016
- Page last updated: December 5, 2016
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