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PRAMS and Smoking Data Tables

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Table 1 Prevalence of Smoking During the 3 Months Defore Getting Pregnant, PRAMS, 2000–2008
Table 2 Prevalence of Smoking During the Last 3 Months of Pregnancy, PRAMS, 2000–2008
Table 3 Prevalence of Smoking After Delivery, PRAMS, 2000–2008
Table 4 Proportion of Women Who Quit Smoking During Pregnancy Among Women Who Smoked 3 Months Before Pregnancy, PRAMS, 2000–2008
Table 5 Prevalence of Smoking During the Last 3 Months of Pregnancy Among 2008 PRAMS Participants, by Selected Demographic Characteristics, for all Sites Combined

Table 1 Prevalence of Smoking During the 3 Months Before Getting Pregnant, PRAMS, 2000–2008*

Site2000
% (95%CI)
2001
% (95%CI)
2002
% (95%CI)
2003
% (95%CI)
2004
% (95%CI)
2005
% (95%CI)
2006
% (95%CI)
2007
% (95%CI)
2008
% (95%CI)
Alabama23.0
20.4-25.7)
26.9
(24.3-29.7)
24.3
(21.8-27.1)
22.9
(20.3-25.7)
Alaska30.8
(28.2-33.5)
27.2
(24.8-29.7)
31.9
(29.4-34.6)
30.9
(28.3-33.5)
30.9
(28.0-33.9)
29.5
(26.7-32.4)
29.8
(26.9-32.8)
27.6
(24.9-30.4)
27.9
(25.1-31.0)
Arkansas28.6
(25.5-31.9)
32.3
(29.6-35.2)
29.4
(26.7-32.3)
31.0
(28.3-34.0)
34.5
(31.8-37.3)
32.6
(30.0-35.3)
30.6
(28.0-33.3)
31.2
(28.4-34.0)
31.4
(28.5-34.4)
Colorado19.9
(17.8-22.1)
21.3
(19.1-23.7)
20.1
(18.1-22.3)
18.7
(16.6-20.9)
21.3
(18.9-24.0)
20.2
(17.8-22.9)
20.3
(17.9-22.9)
19.9
(17.6-22.5)
16.9
(14.8-19.3)
Delaware20.9
(17.9-24.3)
24.3
(22.0-26.8)
Florida17.2
(14.8-20.0)
19.7
(17.1-22.5)
19.5
(17.0-22.4)
21.3
(18.6-24.3)
22.1
(19.5-25.0)
17.9
(15.7-20.4)
Georgia19.4
(16.7-22.4)
19.1
(16.5-21.9)
17.5
(15.2-20.2)
16.9
(13.2-21.5)
17.5
(14.2-21.3)
Hawaii20.2
(18.5-22.0)
20.8
(19.2-22.6)
19.8
(17.7-22.0)
20.8
(18.7-23.0)
20.6
(18.9-22.5)
21.2
(19.2-23.2)
21.2
(19.2-23.3)
19.8
(18.0-21.8)
18.9
(17.1-20.9)
Illinois20.3
(18.5-22.3)
21.1
(19.3-23.1)
21.6
(19.6-23.6)
21.9
(19.8-24.2)
22.3
(20.3-24.4)
18.8
(16.8-20.9)
21.6
(19.5-23.9)
19.7
(17.8-21.8)
19.2
(17.2-21.4)
Louisiana21.2
(19.2-23.4)
24.2
(22.0-26.5)
22.7
(20.5-25.1)
24.4
(22.1-26.9)
28.2§
(25.8-30.8)
Maine31.2
(28.1-34.4)
29.8
(26.9-33.0)
28.9
(26.0-32.1)
29.0
(25.9-32.2)
31.0
(28.0-34.2)
32.1
(29.0-35.3)
30.7
(27.6-33.9)
31.6
(28.5-34.9)
32.3
(29.2-35.6)
Maryland18.9
(15.9-22.4)
18.4
(15.5-21.7)
20.6
(17.5-23.9)
20.3
(17.3-23.7)
17.9
(14.9-21.3)
15.1
(12.6-18.0)
17.5
(14.8-20.7)
19.1
(16.2-22.2)
Massachusetts15.6
(13.0-18.6)
19.5
(16.7-22.7)
Michigan29.3
(25.9-33.1)
28.9
(26.4-31.6)
27.6
(25.1-30.2)
31.7
(28.8-34.7)
28.8
(26.1-31.6)
32.1
(28.9-35.4)
28.9
(26.3-31.7)
26.9
(24.4-29.6)
Minnesota27.7
(24.4-31.2)
24.6
(22.0-27.4)
27.6
(24.7-30.6)
27.2
(24.4-30.2)
25.6
(23.5-27.9)
24.7
(22.4-27.1)
22.1§
(19.9-24.6)
Mississippi21.9
(19.3-24.8)
21.4
(18.8-24.2)
25.8
(22.5-29.4)
26.0§
(23.2-29.1)
Missouri31.7
(28.8-34.8)
Montana29.7
(26.9-32.6)
Nebraska24.8
(22.5-27.3)
26.9
(24.9-29.1)
27.6
(25.1-30.2)
25.7
(23.4-28.2)
26.1
(23.7-28.7)
25.8
(23.4-28.3)
26.2
(23.6-29.0)
27.8
(25.0-30.7)
22.8
(20.2-25.6)
New Jersey17.2
(14.8-19.8)
15.7
(14.3-17.3)
16.7
(15.3-18.3)
16.1
(14.6-17.7)
14.8
(13.4-16.3)
14.1
(12.6-15.8)
15.8
(14.0-17.7)
New Mexico21.3
(19.2-23.5)
24.0
(21.7-26.5)
19.8
(17.7-22.0)
18.4
(16.3-20.7)
20.7
(18.5-23.0)
18.8§
(16.5-21.4)
New York**27.1
(24.0-30.4)
24.8
(21.9-28.0)
23.3
(20.4-26.6)
25.6
(22.6-28.9)
28.4
(25.1-32.0)
23.0
(20.1-26.2)
22.3
(18.2-26.9)
23.4
(20.3-26.8)
21.4§
(18.5-24.6)
New York City14.2
(11.4-17.6)
12.4
(10.0-15.2)
10.7
(8.8-12.9)
11.3
(9.3-13.6)
North Carolina24.4
(21.9-27.1)
21.3
(18.8-24.0)
22.5
(20.0-25.2)
23.6
(20.9-26.5)
26.7
(24.0-29.6)
22.5
(19.4-25.9)
22.9
(20.5-25.6)
22.3
(19.9-25.0)
North Dakota26.4
(23.7-29.3)
Ohio28.6
(25.6-31.8)
27.2
(24.3-30.3)
26.6
(23.7-29.9)
32.5
(29.2-36.0)
32.0
(28.7-35.6)
30.8
(27.7-34.0)
28.5
(25.3-31.8)
32.1§
(28.9-35.5)
Oklahoma30.2
(26.9-33.8)
31.8
(28.4-35.4)
31.2
(27.9-34.6)
28.6
(25.4-32.0)
31.8
(28.4-35.4)
31.6
(28.4-35.0)
31.4
(28.0-35.0)
37.8
(34.1-41.5)
31.9§
(28.5-35.5)
Oregon20.2
(17.1-23.9)
23.6
(20.4-27.0)
21.6
(18.7-24.8)
21.2
(18.3-24.5)
21.2
(18.1-24.6)
20.1
(16.9-23.8)
Pennsylvania27.8
(23.3-32.8)
28.1
(25.2-31.2)
Rhode Island21.3
(18.9-24.1)
21.6
(19.1-24.2)
22.2
(19.7-24.8)
21.9
(19.4-24.6)
24.2
(21.6-27.2)
22.9
(20.3-25.7)
22.4
(19.8-25.3)
South Carolina23.2
(20.1-26.7)
22.8
(19.6-26.3)
22.0
(18.6-25.8)
23.7
(20.3-27.5)
24.7
(21.3-28.4)
25.8
(22.3-29.5)
24.8
(20.3-29.9)
22.8
(19.4-26.6)
Tennessee30.7
(26.5-35.1)
Utah14.3
(12.1-16.8)
13.8
(12.0-15.8)
13.6
(11.4-16.1)
11.5
(9.6-13.7)
12.3
(10.9-13.9)
10.2
(9.0-11.7)
12.1
(10.8-13.7)
10.6
(9.2-12.2)
10.4§
(9.1-11.9)
Vermont30.4
(28.0-32.8)
28.4
(25.8-31.1)
25.1
(22.8-27.6)
29.8
(27.0-32.7)
26.9
(24.3-29.8)
25.9
(23.3-28.6)
29.6
(26.9-32.4)
29.6
(26.9-32.4)
Washington21.4
(18.5-24.6)
20.5
(17.6-23.7)
22.3
(19.2-25.6)
21.4
(18.5-24.6)
19.8
(17.0-22.8)
18.6
(15.9-21.6)
21.3
(18.5-24.4)
19.9
(17.2-22.9)
20.2
(17.5-23.1)
West Virginia36.2
(33.1-39.5)
39.1
(35.7-42.5)
37.0
(33.8-40.4)
38.9
(35.6-42.3)
39.5
(34.9-44.3)
45.8
(42.4-49.2)
41.8
(38.4-45.2)
40.5
(37.2-43.8)
39.4§
(36.5-42.3)
Wisconsin30.0
(26.8-33.5)
22.9
(19.8-26.2)
Wyoming32.0
(28.7-35.6)
28.7
(25.4-32.3)
Overall23.0
(22.2-23.8)
23.5
(22.7-24.2)
23.2
(22.5-23.9)
23.5
(22.8-24.1)
23.6
(22.9-24.2)
22.0
(21.4-22.7)
22.0
(21.4-22.7)
22.5
(21.8-23.2)
23.0
(22.3-23.7)

* Data were weighted to represent all live births delivered in each respective site in the given year.
Data unavailable or excluded from analysis because response rate was <70% (2000–2006) or <65% (2007-2008).
§ P value for linear trend is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Linear trend was calculated for sites with at least three years of data.
Because the total number of sites included in overall prevalence estimates varied from year to year, a trend analysis was not performed.
** Excludes New York City.

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Table 2 Prevalence of Smoking During the Last 3 Months of Pregnancy, PRAMS, 2000–2008*

Site2000
% (95%CI)
2001
% (95%CI)
2002
% (95%CI)
2003
% (95%CI)
2004
% (95%CI)
2005
% (95%CI)
2006
% (95%CI)
2007
% (95%CI)
2008
% (95%CI)
Alabama14.0
(12.0-16.2)
15.6
(13.5-17.9)
14.4
(12.4-16.7)
13.3
(11.3-15.6)
Alaska16.8
(14.9-19.0)
14.7
(12.9-16.6)
17.7
(15.8-19.8)
16.7
(14.8-18.9)
17.4
(15.1-19.9)
16.0
(13.9-18.4)
14.8
(12.7-17.0)
15.5
(13.5-17.7)
15.0
(12.9-17.5)
Arkansas20.3
(17.6-23.2)
20.1
(17.8-22.5)
19.2
(16.9-21.7)
18.5
(16.3-20.9)
23.1
(20.8-25.6)
20.9
(18.7-23.2)
19.4
(17.3-21.8)
18.8
(16.6-21.2)
24.0
(21.4-26.8)
Colorado10.2
(8.7-11.9)
11.4
(9.8-13.3)
10.6
(9.1-12.2)
10.6
(9.0-12.4)
10.4
(8.7-12.3)
10.2
(8.4-12.3)
10.4
(8.7-12.4)
10.1
(8.4-12.1)
8.1
(6.6-10.0)
Delaware12.6
(10.2-15.4)
13.3
(11.5-15.3)
Florida9.1
(7.3-11.2)
9.4
(7.7-11.6)
10.0
(8.1-12.2)
10.6
(8.7-12.9)
10.0
(8.2-12.1)
8.3
(6.8-10.1)
Georgia10.5
(8.4-12.9)
10.3
(8.4-12.6)
9.3
(7.5-11.4)
7.6
(5.2-11.1)
8.1
(5.9-11.0)
Hawaii8.4
(7.3-9.6)
9.5
(8.4-10.8)
8.1
(6.8-9.6)
9.3
(7.9-11.0)
8.1
(6.9-9.4)
8.4
(7.1-9.8)
9.4
(8.0-11.0)
8.4
(7.1-9.8)
8.5
(7.3-10.0)
Illinois12.5
(11.0-14.1)
12.6
(11.1-14.2)
11.4
(10.0-13.0)
12.6
(11.0-14.5)
12.1
(10.6-13.8)
10.4
(8.9-12.1)
11.4
(9.8-13.2)
10.7
(9.2-12.4)
9.6§
(8.2-11.3)
Louisiana11.9
(10.4-13.7)
12.8
(11.2-14.7)
11.8
(10.2-13.7)
14.5
(12.6-16.6)
17.7§
(15.7-20.0)
Maine17.5
(15.0-20.2)
17.3
(14.9-20.0)
15.9
(13.5-18.6)
16.2
(13.8-18.9)
20.0
(17.5-22.9)
17.5
(15.0-20.2)
17.1
(14.7-19.9)
19.9
(17.3-22.8)
19.5
(16.9-22.4)
Maryland9.4
(7.3-12.1)
8.3
(6.4-10.7)
11.1
(8.9-13.9)
10.3
(8.1-12.9)
10.0
(7.7-12.8)
7.8
(6.0-10.1)
9.3
(7.2-11.8)
10.9
(8.7-13.6)
Massachusetts8.8
(6.9-11.3)
9.8
(7.7-12.4)
Michigan20.0
(16.9-23.4)
17.4
(15.3-19.7)
15.6
(13.6-17.8)
18.9
(16.6-21.5)
15.8
(13.7-18.2)
18.0
(15.5-20.9)
14.9
(12.9-17.2)
16.0§
(14.0-18.3)
Minnesota15.4
(12.9-18.3)
14.9
(12.8-17.3)
15.9
(13.7-18.5)
15.6
(13.4-18.1)
13.6
(11.9-15.5)
15.0
(13.1-17.0)
11.6§
(9.9-13.6)
Mississippi13.5
(11.4-15.8)
13.9
(11.8-16.4)
14.4
(11.9-17.4)
15.6
(13.3-18.2)
Missouri18.4
(16.0-21.0)
Montana15.9
(13.7-18.3)
Nebraska14.0
(12.2-16.0)
14.8
(13.2-16.7)
14.4
(12.4-16.6)
13.0
(11.2-15.0)
16.0
(14.0-18.3)
15.2
(13.3-17.3)
14.9
(12.8-17.4)
14.7
(12.5-17.2)
14.0
(11.8-16.4)
New Jersey9.0
(7.5-10.7)
7.9
(7.0-8.9)
7.9
(7.0-8.8)
6.7
(5.9-7.6)
5.7
(5.0-6.4)
6.2
(5.3-7.2)
6.8§
(5.8-8.0)
New Mexico9.3
(7.9-10.9)
10.7
(9.0-12.5)
8.2
(6.9-9.8)
8.2
(6.7-9.9)
9.9
(8.3-11.6)
8.6
(7.0-10.5)
New York**17.0
(14.4-19.9)
14.4
(12.1-17.0)
14.6
(12.2-17.4)
14.6
(12.2-17.4)
15.6
(12.9-18.7)
12.9
(10.7-15.6)
12.2
(9.1-16.1)
13.7
(11.2-16.5)
11.9§
(9.7-14.6)
New York City7.6
(5.5-10.3)
5.0
(3.5-7.1)
3.9
(2.8-5.4)
4.7
(3.4-6.4)
North Carolina13.9
(12.0-16.2)
12.2
(10.3-14.4)
11.7
(9.9-13.8)
13.2
(11.2-15.6)
14.8
(12.7-17.2)
13.3
(10.9-16.2)
14.3
(12.3-16.6)
12.5
(10.6-14.6)
North Dakota15.6
(13.5-18.0)
Ohio17.1
(14.7-19.8)
17.5
(15.1-20.1)
17.6
(15.0-20.4)
19.0
(16.3-22.0)
21.6
(18.7-24.8)
17.0
(14.5-19.7)
18.0
(15.4-21.0)
18.9
(16.3-21.9)
Oklahoma16.9
(14.3-19.9)
20.3
(17.4-23.5)
20.0
(17.2-23.0)
16.2
(13.7-19.1)
19.0
(16.2-22.1)
19.6
(16.9-22.6)
19.3
(16.5-22.5)
21.3
(18.3-24.6)
16.9
(14.3-19.9)
Oregon12.1
(9.5-15.2)
13.7
(11.2-16.7)
13.7
(11.3-16.5)
10.7
(8.6-13.3)
10.4
(8.2-13.1)
11.2
(8.7-14.3)
Pennsylvania15.4
(11.8-19.8)
15.6
(13.3-18.2)
Rhode Island12.9
(11.0-15.2)
10.5
(8.8-12.5)
11.3
(9.5-13.4)
11.7
(9.8-13.8)
13.4
(11.3-15.9)
12.4
(10.4-14.7)
10.8
(8.9-13.0)
South Carolina12.4
(10.1-15.2)
13.0
(10.6-15.9)
13.1
(10.5-16.3)
11.4
(9.0-14.4)
13.9
(11.3-17.0)
14.9
(12.2-18.1)
10.9
(8.0-14.8)
12.4
(9.8-15.6)
Tennessee19.7
(16.3-23.7)
Utah7.3
(5.7-9.3)
7.7
(6.4-9.3)
6.8
(5.2-8.7)
3.9
(2.9-5.2)
6.6
(5.5-7.8)
5.1
(4.2-6.1)
6.1
(5.1-7.1)
5.3
(4.3-6.6)
5.1§
(4.2-6.2)
Vermont17.8
(15.9-19.9)
18.2
(16.0-20.6)
15.3
(13.4-17.4)
18.0
(15.7-20.5)
16.4
(14.2-18.8)
15.5
(13.4-17.8)
17.5
(15.3-19.8)
18.1
(15.8-20.5)
Washington11.1
(9.0-13.7)
9.9
(7.8-12.4)
11.8
(9.5-14.7)
10.2
(8.2-12.7)
10.3
(8.3-12.8)
9.2
(7.3-11.7)
12.2
(10.0-15.0)
9.4
(7.5-11.8)
11.2
(9.2-13.7)
West Virginia24.5
(21.7-27.4)
26.1
(23.3-29.2)
25.3
(22.5-28.3)
27.5
(24.5-30.7)
28.4
(24.3-32.9)
31.9
(28.8-35.2)
29.4
(26.4-32.5)
30.0
(27.0-33.1)
28.7§
(26.1-31.4)
Wisconsin17.4
(14.8-20.5)
13.2
(10.8-16.0)
Wyoming17.6
(15.0-20.6)
16.1
(13.4-19.1)
Overall13.2
(12.6-13.9)
13.4
(12.8-14.0)
13.1
(12.6-13.7)
13.0
(12.5-13.5)
12.9
(12.4-13.4)
12.2
(11.7-12.8)
11.8
(11.2-12.3)
12.4
(11.9-12.9)
12.8
(12.3-13.3)

* Data were weighted to represent all live births delivered in each respective site in the given year.
Data unavailable or excluded from analysis because response rate was <70% (2000–2006) or <65% (2007–2008).
§ P value for linear trend is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Linear trend was calculated for sites with at least three years of data.
Because the total number of sites included in overall prevalence estimates varied from year to year, a trend analysis was not performed.
** Excludes New York City.

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Table 3 Prevalence of Smoking After Delivery, PRAMS, 2000-2008*

Site2000
% (95%CI)
2001
% (95%CI)
2002
% (95%CI)
2003
% (95%CI)
2004
% (95%CI)
2005
% (95%CI)
2006
% (95%CI)
2007
% (95%CI)
2008
% (95%CI)
Alabama19.5
(17.2-22.1)
22.4
(20.0-25.0)
19.7
(17.5-22.2)
17.8
(15.5-20.4)
Alaska24.4
(22.0-26.9)
20.4
(18.3-22.6)
24.3
(22.1-26.6)
22.1
(19.9-24.4)
23.6
(21.0-26.4)
20.7
(18.3-23.3)
20.5
(18.1-23.1)
20.3
(18.0-22.9)
21.7§
(19.1-24.5)
Arkansas25.0
(22.1-28.2)
25.9
(23.4-28.6)
25.3
(22.8-28.0)
26.1
(23.5-28.8)
28.6
(26.0-31.2)
27.5
(25.1-30.1)
25.6
(23.2-28.2)
25.4
(22.9-28.1)
26.9
(24.2-29.8)
Colorado15.0
(13.2-17.0)
15.9
(14.0-18.1)
14.0
(12.3-15.9)
14.0
(12.2-15.9)
15.3
(13.2-17.7)
14.8
(12.6-17.2)
14.9
(12.8-17.3)
14.6
(12.6-17.0)
11.3§
(9.5-13.2)
Delaware16.7
(13.9-19.8)
18.9
(16.8-21.2)
Florida14.8
(12.6-17.3)
14.7
(12.5-17.1)
14.3
(12.1-16.8)
16.7
(14.4-19.4)
16.1
(13.8-18.6)
12.8
(11.0-15.0)
Georgia14.8
(12.4-17.6)
15.4
(13.1-18.0)
14.0
(11.9-16.4)
13.1
(9.8-17.3)
12.9
(10.0-16.3)
Hawaii13.7
(12.3-15.2)
15.0
(13.5-16.5)
13.0
(11.4-14.9)
14.8
(13.1-16.8)
13.1
(11.7-14.7)
14.1
(12.5-15.8)
14.3
(12.6-16.2)
13.3
(11.7-15.0)
12.4
(10.9-14.1)
Illinois16.6
(14.9-18.4)
17.2
(15.5-19.0)
16.8
(15.1-18.7)
17.8
(15.9-20.0)
17.1
(15.4-19.1)
14.7
(12.9-16.6)
16.2
(14.4-18.3)
14.7
(13.0-16.6)
14.2§
(12.5-16.1)
Louisiana18.7
(16.8-20.8)
20.5
(18.4-22.6)
19.2
(17.2-21.5)
21.9
(19.6-24.3)
23.4§
(21.1-25.8)
Maine23.8
(21.1-26.8)
22.7
(20.0-25.6)
21.6
(18.9-24.6)
20.8
(18.1-23.7)
24.5
(21.7-27.5)
23.4
(20.7-26.4)
20.9
(18.2-23.9)
23.5
(20.7-26.6)
25.3
(22.4-28.4)
Maryland14.6
(11.9-17.6)
12.8
(10.4-15.7)
16.4
(13.7-19.6)
16.3
(13.5-19.4)
13.7
(11.0-16.8)
11.8
(9.5-14.5)
13.3
(10.8-16.2)
14.1
(11.7-17.0)
Massachusetts11.6
(9.4-14.3)
13.5
(11.1-16.4)
Michigan24.3
(21.1-27.9)
23.4
(21.1-26.0)
22.7
(20.4-25.2)
25.6
(22.9-28.5)
22.4
(20.0-25.1)
26.3
(23.3-29.5)
22.2
(19.8-24.8)
22.5
(20.1-25.0)
Minnesota19.9
(17.1-23.0)
19.4
(17.1-22.0)
21.4
(18.9-24.3)
21.3
(18.8-24.1)
19.0
(17.0-21.1)
19.0
(17.0-21.3)
15.3§
(13.4-17.5)
Mississippi20.0
(17.5-22.7)
17.7
(15.3-20.4)
21.1
(18.1-24.6)
22.5§
(19.8-25.4)
Missouri25.9
(23.1-28.8)
Montana20.8
(18.4-23.5)
Nebraska19.4
(17.3-21.7)
21.4
(19.5-23.4)
19.9
(17.7-22.3)
18.8
(16.7-21.1)
20.8
(18.6-23.3)
20.1
(17.9-22.4)
19.2
(16.9-21.8)
20.2
(17.7-22.9)
18.7
(16.3-21.4)
New Jersey13.1
(11.1-15.3)
12.2
(11.0-13.6)
12.0
(10.9-13.3)
11.5
(10.3-12.8)
10.1
(9.0-11.3)
9.6
(8.4-10.9)
11.2§
(9.8-12.8)
New Mexico16.0
(14.2-18.0)
16.2
(14.2-18.3)
13.6
(11.9-15.5)
12.5
(10.8-14.5)
14.5
(12.7-16.5)
13.1§
(11.1-15.4)
New York**22.4
(19.5-25.6)
20.6
(17.9-23.6)
19.3
(16.6-22.3)
19.2
(16.5-22.3)
21.6
(18.6-25.0)
17.5
(14.9-20.5)
16.9
(13.3-21.2)
17.9
(15.2-21.0)
16.1§
(13.6-19.0)
New York City11.7
(9.1-14.9)
8.8
(6.8-11.3)
6.8
(5.4-8.6)
8.8
(7.1-11.0)
North Carolina20.1
(17.7-22.6)
17.6
(15.4-20.2)
17.8
(15.6-20.3)
20.5
(18.0-23.3)
20.7
(18.2-23.4)
16.9
(14.2-20.0)
17.9
(15.6-20.4)
17.5
(15.3-19.9)
North Dakota21.8
(19.4-24.5)
Ohio24.2
(21.4-27.2)
23.8
(21.1-26.7)
22.6
(19.8-25.7)
28.0
(24.9-31.4)
27.4
(24.2-30.8)
22.5
(19.8-25.5)
22.9
(20.0-26.1)
24.9
(21.9-28.0)
Oklahoma25.8
(22.6-29.1)
27.2
(24.0-30.7)
27.0
(23.9-30.3)
24.7
(21.7-28.0)
26.3
(23.1-29.7)
26.3
(23.2-29.5)
25.0
(21.9-28.4)
29.6
(26.2-33.2)
23.9
(20.9-27.2)
Oregon15.5
(12.7-18.9)
17.8
(15.0-21.0)
15.9
(13.3-18.9)
15.0
(12.5-18.0)
13.2
(10.8-16.2)
13.7
(11.0-17.0)
Pennsylvania22.8
(18.6-27.6)
22.0
(19.4-24.9)
Rhode Island17.0
(14.7-19.5)
15.1
(13.1-17.5)
16.6
(14.4-19.0)
15.8
(13.6-18.2)
18.9
(16.4-21.6)
16.3
(14.0-18.8)
15.0
(12.9-17.5)
South Carolina18.6
(15.8-21.8)
20.3
(17.3-23.7)
17.8
(14.8-21.3)
20.1
(16.9-23.7)
19.2
(16.2-22.7)
21.5
(18.3-25.1)
16.4
(12.7-21.0)
16.2
(13.3-19.7)
Tennessee26.0
(22.1-30.4)
Utah9.5
(7.7-11.6)
10.1
(8.6-11.9)
9.0
(7.2-11.1)
7.6
(6.1-9.5)
8.7
(7.5-10.1)
7.3
(6.2-8.5)
8.3
(7.2-9.6)
7.6
(6.4-9.0)
7.1§
(6.0-8.3)
Vermont22.2
(20.1-24.4)
21.5
(19.2-24.1)
17.6
(15.6-19.9)
22.8
(20.3-25.5)
21.0
(18.5-23.6)
18.4
(16.2-20.9)
21.6
(19.3-24.2)
22.7
(20.2-25.4)
Washington16.0
(13.5-18.9)
14.9
(12.4-17.8)
15.7
(13.1-18.8)
15.5
(13.0-18.4)
14.6
(12.1-17.3)
13.0
(10.7-15.6)
14.9
(12.5-17.8)
13.0
(10.8-15.7)
13.9
(11.7-16.5)
West Virginia31.6
(28.6-34.7)
34.3
(31.2-37.6)
33.7
(30.6-37.0)
33.6
(30.5-36.9)
33.5
(29.2-38.1)
39.3
(36.0-42.7)
35.0
(31.8-38.2)
36.6
(33.5-39.9)
34.9§
(32.1-37.7)
Wisconsin21.9
(19.0-25.1)
18.6
(15.9-21.8)
Wyoming24.5
(21.5-27.8)
20.9
(18.0-24.2)
Overall18.9
(18.2-19.6)
19.0
(18.3-19.7)
18.2
(17.6-18.8)
18.9
(18.3-19.5)
18.2
(17.6-18.8)
17.1
(16.5-17.7)
16.5
(15.9-17.1)
17.1
(16.5-17.7)
17.6
(17.0-18.2)

* Data were weighted to represent all live births delivered in each respective site in the given year.
Data unavailable or excluded from analysis because response rate was <70% (2000–2006) or <65% (2007–2008).
§ P value for linear trend is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Linear trend was calculated for sites with at least three years of data.
Because the total number of sites included in overall prevalence estimates varied from year to year, a trend analysis was not performed.
** Excludes New York City.

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Table 4. Proportion of Women Who Quit Smoking During Pregnancy Among Women Who Smoked 3 Months Before Pregnancy, PRAMS, 2000–2008*

Site2000
% (95%CI)
2001
% (95%CI)
2002
% (95%CI)
2003
% (95%CI)
2004
% (95%CI)
2005
% (95%CI)
2006
% (95%CI)
2007
% (95%CI)
2008
% (95%CI)
Alabama41.7
(35.4-48.3)
41.4
(35.5-47.5)
41.6
(35.6-47.9)
44.2
(37.5-51.1)
Alaska45.7
(40.5-50.9)
46.6
(41.4-51.8)
46.1
(41.3-50.9)
46.8
(41.8-51.8)
44.5
(38.9-50.3)
46.1
(40.3-51.9)
50.8
(45.0-56.6)
43.8
(38.1-49.7)
46.0
(39.9-52.4)
Arkansas31.9
(26.2-38.3)
37.4
(32.3-42.8)
35.6
(30.3-41.3)
40.3
(34.9-46.0)
33.1
(28.6-37.8)
36.1
(31.5-40.9)
36.4
(31.6-41.5)
39.9
(34.8-45.3)
23.3
(18.9-28.4)
Colorado49.3
(43.2-55.3)
47.6
(41.6-53.7)
49.3
(43.5-55.2)
46.0
(39.7-52.3)
52.0
(45.3-58.6)
50.1
(43.0-57.2)
49.3
(42.5-56.1)
49.6
(42.9-56.4)
51.9
(44.6-59.1)
Delaware39.9
(31.8-48.7)
46.1
(40.4-51.9)
Florida47.8
(39.5-56.2)
53.7
(46.0-61.3)
49.8
(42.0-57.6)
51.5
(43.9-59.1)
54.7
(47.6-61.7)
53.7
(46.4-60.7)
Georgia46.1
(37.8-54.5)
46.3
(38.4-54.4)
48.5
(40.7-56.4)
54.8
(41.5-67.6)
52.8
(41.7-63.6)
Hawaii59.3
(54.6-63.9)
56.0
(51.4-60.5)
59.1
(53.2-64.8)
55.6
(49.8-61.3)
61.3
(56.3-66.1)
61.0
(55.7-66.1)
55.8
(50.3-61.2)
58.1
(52.6-63.4)
54.8
(49.1-60.3)
Illinois40.3
(35.2-45.7)
41.3
(36.4-46.4)
47.4
(42.3-52.7)
44.5
(38.9-50.4)
45.8
(40.7-51.0)
44.7
(38.8-50.7)
47.3
(41.6-53.0)
45.8
(40.2-51.5)
50.1§
(44.2-56.1)
Louisiana44.2
(38.7-49.7)
46.2
(40.9-51.7)
49.1
(43.2-54.9)
39.7
(34.2-45.4)
37.1§
(32.2-42.4)
Maine43.9
(37.9-50.1)
41.6
(35.7-47.7)
46.6
(40.3-53.0)
45.5
(39.1-52.0)
35.1
(29.6-41.1)
45.2
(39.3-51.2)
43.5
(37.4-49.8)
37.1
(31.3-43.3)
39.8
(34.0-45.9)
Maryland53.
8 (44.3-63.1)
54.5
(45.2-63.6)
45.5
(36.9-54.4)
49.5
(40.7-58.3)
44.3
(34.7-54.3)
48.4
(38.9-58.1)
47.8
(38.7-57.1)
43.7
(35.2-52.5)
Massachusetts42.8
(33.5-52.6)
50.7
(41.9-59.4)
Michigan33.1
(26.8-40.2)
39.9
(34.7-45.3)
44.2
(38.8-49.8)
39.9
(34.5-45.7)
44.9
(39.3-50.7)
43.6
(37.4-49.9)
48.9
(43.3-54.7)
41.1§
(35.5-47.0)
Minnesota45.3
(38.3-52.4)
39.9
(33.9-46.3)
42.7
(36.6-49.0)
42.9
(36.9-49.1)
47.5
(42.5-52.6)
39.8
(34.5-45.2)
47.8
(41.8-53.9)
Mississippi39.0
(32.2-46.2)
35.3
(28.9-42.4)
43.2
(35.6-51.0)
40.3
(34.0-46.9)
Missouri42.1
(36.5-47.9)
Montana48.1
(42.3-54.0)
Nebraska43.6
(38.0-49.2)
46.5
(41.8-51.3)
47.7
(42.1-53.5)
50.8
(45.2-56.4)
38.5
(33.1-44.1)
40.7
(35.4-46.3)
43.9
(37.8-50.1)
47.7
(41.5-54.0)
38.9
(32.5-45.8)
New Jersey47.9
(39.8-56.2)
51.3
(45.9-56.6)
53.0
(48.1-57.8)
58.5
(53.4-63.3)
62.3
(57.2-67.1)
56.2
(50.0-62.2)
57.1§
(50.8-63.2)
New Mexico58.6
(52.9-64.0)
55.3
(49.5-61.0)
58.3
(52.3-64.1)
56.8
(50.2-63.2)
52.1
(46.0-58.1)
53.6
(46.3-60.8)
New York**37.3
(30.7-44.3)
43.4
(36.4-50.6)
38.4
(31.3-45.9)
44.7
(37.6-52.1)
45.2
(38.1-52.5)
44.5
(37.1-52.1)
45.3
(34.6-56.4)
41.6
(34.0-49.6)
43.9
(36.2-52.0)
New York City46.2
(34.8-58.0)
60.9
(49.4-71.2)
63.0
(52.9-72.1)
58.1
(47.9-67.7)
North Carolina44.5
(38.4-50.8)
43.4
(36.8-50.3)
50.5
(43.9-57.1)
45.4
(38.7-52.3)
45.1
(39.0-51.3)
42.4
(34.5-50.7)
38.0
(32.0-44.4)
44.5
(38.2-51.0)
North Dakota43.1
(37.0-49.3)
Ohio39.7
(33.5-46.2)
36.9
(30.8-43.4)
34.8
(28.6-41.7)
41.0
(34.7-47.7)
33.3
(27.4-39.8)
45.0
(38.8-51.3)
36.7
(30.4-43.6)
41.5
(35.5-47.9)
Oklahoma46.4
(39.6-53.4)
37.6
(31.4-44.3)
38.2
(32.0-44.7)
44.7
(38.0-51.7)
39.2
(32.8-46.0)
38.0
(32.1-44.2)
39.0
(32.6-45.8)
43.6
(37.5-49.9)
47.1
(40.5-53.8)
Oregon43.5
(34.3-53.3)
42.6
(34.7-50.9)
37.3
(29.8-45.5)
49.4
(41.0-57.7)
50.9
(42.1-59.6)
43.9
(34.4-53.8)
Pennsylvania44.6
(34.6-55.1)
44.8
(38.7-51.0)
Rhode Island38.0
(31.5-45.0)
51.9
(45.1-58.6)
49.0
(42.4-55.6)
46.7
(40.1-53.5)
44.3
(37.7-51.1)
45.9
(39.3-52.7)
52.9
(45.9-59.8)
South Carolina45.6
(37.5-53.9)
43.3
(35.1-52.0)
44.8
(35.6-54.5)
49.6
(40.7-58.6)
42.7
(34.6-51.2)
42.8
(34.9-51.1)
55.0
(43.7-65.7)
43.8
(35.0-52.9)
Tennessee35.6
(27.9-44.2)
Utah49.8
(40.7-58.9)
45.6
(38.3-53.1)
49.7
(40.5-58.9)
65.8
(56.4-74.0)
47.0
(40.5-53.5)
51.3
(44.1-58.3)
50.3
(43.8-56.8)
50.4
(42.7-58.2)
51.0
(43.7-58.2)
Vermont42.9
(38.2-47.7)
37.5
(32.3-43.0)
39.1
(33.7-44.7)
39.9
(34.4-45.6)
39.2
(33.5-45.2)
40.6
(34.7-46.6)
41.0
(35.6-46.6)
39.7
(34.2-45.4)
Washington49.7
(41.4-57.9)
54.8
(46.2-63.2)
49.7
(41.2-58.1)
54.1
(45.7-62.2)
47.9
(39.7-56.2)
50.5
(41.8-59.1)
43.3
(35.5-51.4)
51.9
(43.5-60.3)
44.9
(37.2-52.8)
West Virginia32.7
(27.7-38.1)
32.8
(27.9-38.2)
32.8
(27.9-38.1)
30.2
(25.4-35.4)
28.1
(21.8-35.4)
30.2
(25.7-35.1)
29.9
(25.4-34.9)
25.9
(21.6-30.8)
27.0§
(23.0-31.4)
Wisconsin42.1
(35.4-49.0)
43.2
(35.5-51.2)
Wyoming46.5
(39.8-53.2)
44.1
(37.1-51.4)
Overall43.2
(41.3-45.2)
43.9
(42.1-45.7)
44.5
(42.8-46.2)
45.7
(44.0-47.4)
45.2
(43.6-46.9)
44.8
(43.1-46.5)
46.9
(45.1-48.6)
44.9
(43.2-46.6)
44.5
(42.8-46.1)

* Data were weighted to represent all live births delivered in each respective site in the given year.
Data unavailable or excluded from analysis because response rate was <70% (2000–2006) or <65% (2007–2008).
§ P value for linear trend is statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Linear trend was calculated for sites with at least 3 years of data.
Because the total number of sites included in overall prevalence estimates varied from year to year, a trend analysis was not performed.
** Excludes New York City

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Table 5. Prevalence of Smoking During the Last 3 Months of Pregnancy Among 2008 PRAMS Participants, by Selected Demographic Characteristics, for All Sites Combined*

Maternal CharacteristicsSmoking During The Last 3 Months of Pregnancy % (95% CI)
Age (Years) 
<2018.5 (16.6–20.6)
20–2419.3 (18.0–20.7)
25–3410.4 (9.8–11.1)
35+7.1 (6.2–8.3)
Race/Ethnicity 
Non-Hispanic white15.9 (15.1–16.6)
Non-Hispanic black10.3 (9.1–11.7)
Hispanic3.9 (3.3–4.7)
Alaska Native30.4 (26.5–34.5)
American Indian21.1 (16.4–26.7)
Asian/Pacific Islander2.2 (1.8–2.8)
Other18.6 (13.7–24.8)
Education (Years) 
< 1222.5 (20.9–24.2)
1219.4 (18.3–20.6)
>126.5 (6.0–7.0)
Health Insurance Coverage During Prenatal Care 
Medicaid22.1 (21.0–23.2)
Other insurance6.6 (6.1–7.2)
Uninsured13.5 (11.8–15.5)

* See Table 1 for a list of the 29 sites with available data in 2008. Sample size for each demographic group exceeded 200 participants. Data were weighted to represent all live births delivered in each respective site in the given year.

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